Generator
Exciter
View of a twopole round rotor generator and exciter.
Synchronous Machines
Stator with laminated iron core
B
Slots with phase winding
A CA+
+
+
+
N
Rotor with dc winding

B+
S

B
A
C+ C
Synchronous Machines
(Courtesy Westinghouse)
Synchronous Machines
Metal frame
Insulated copper bars are placed in the slots to form the threephase winding
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Steel retaining ring Shaft Shaft
Synchronous Machines
CN A+
Rotor with dc winding
+ + + + +
B+
S BC+
Synchronous Machines
B+ C
AC+ N
+ +
+ +
BS
A+
S A+ CB+
+ +
BC+
+ +
N A
Synchronous Machines
Stator of a large salient pole hydro generator; inset shows the insulated conductors and spacers.
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Slip rings
Pole
Fan
DC excitation winding
Synchronous Machines
Exciter rotor Exciter stator Rotating rectifier Generator
Idc
Field winding
Phase windings
Stationary Rotates
Operating Concept
Synchronous Machines
Flux f nsy CB+
N

+ + + + + 
A
A+
S
C+
B
Synchronous Machines
Maximum flux linkage with phase A No flux linkage with phase A
C+
B+
N
C+
B+
A+
A
A+
S
+ +
A
S
+
B
C+
B
C+
(a) Flux is perpendicular to phase A (b) Flux is parallel to phase A Rotation produced flux linkage variation.
Synchronous Machines
rot
t
link
nsy
CB+
N
A+

+ + +
30
+ +
A
S
C+
B
Synchronous Machines
Main rotating flux
f n sy p 2 2 n sy
link (t ) rot cos( t )
E s (t ) N sta
d link (t ) dt
Synchronous Machines
nsy
CB+
+ + + 30
N

Field flux f
+ +
AArmature flux ar C+
A+
B
Synchronous Machines
Armature flux
I arm (t ) 2 I sta cos( t)
Load current generates a rotating flux reducing the main flux and induced voltage
arm (t ) ar cos( t )
E ar (t ) N sta
E arm
N sta ar
Vt E sta E arm
Synchronous Machines
Armature flux
E ar (t ) Larm dI
arm
(t )
Larm
d dt sin( t )
2 I sta cos( t )
2 I sta sin( t )
X arm
N sta ar 2 I sta
Synchronous Machines
Single phase equivalent circuit
E arm syn I sta ( j X syn )
Rsta Vt
Synchronous Machines
The DC excitation current in the rotor generates a flux. The turbine drives the rotor and produces a rotating flux The rotation cause flux changes in the windings The rotating flux induce a ac three phase voltage in the stator winding. This is the rotor induced voltage in the stator.
Synchronous Machines
The generator is loaded The load current produces a rotating flux This rotating flux induces a ac three phase voltage in the stator winding. This voltage is
subtracted from the induced voltage. represented by a voltage drop on the synchronous reactance
The equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator is a voltage source and a reactance connected in series
Synchronous Machines
Generator Application
Power angle: Angle between the dc excitation current generated induced voltage and the terminal voltage
Xsyn Flux Esta DC Ista Vt Rsta
Synchronous Machines
Generator Application
Synchronous Machines
Synchronization
Verify that the phase sequences of the two systems are the same. Adjust the machine speed with the turbine that drives the generator until the generator voltage frequency is nearly the same as the frequency of the network voltage. Adjust the terminal voltage of the generator by changing the dc field (rotor) current until the generator terminal voltage is almost equal to the network voltage. Acceptable limit is 5%.
Adjust the phase angle of the generator terminal voltage by regulating the input power until it is nearly equal with the phase angle of the network voltage. Acceptable limits are about 15.
Synchronous Machines
Static stability
Generator
Sgen 150kV A Vgen 12.47kV xgen 128%
Transmission line
Lline 48mi
ZL ( 0.5 j 0.67) mi
Network
Vnet 12.47kV Inet _short 2kA
Synchronous Machines
Generator Distribution line Network
Esta
System Data
The system data are: Generator Netw ork Distribution line
xgen 128%
The f irst step of the study is to calculate the impedances. The generator snchronous reactance is :
Xsyn xgen
Vgen
Sgen
Xsyn 1.3269 k
Zline ZL Lline
Zline 24 32.16j
Vnet _ln
Vnet 3
Xnet
Xnet 3.6
The equivalent circuit show s that the current in this sytem is the voltage dif f erence divided by the total sy stem impedanc e
Isyt
Pg Re Sg Pnet Re Snet
The generator terminal voltage is:
Reg
Pg kW Pnet kW 110
200
150
Stable operati on
100
50
30
60
90 deg
120
150
180
Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage and Synchronous Reactance Calculation
E sta
0 N sta N rot
X syn
0 N
2 sta
Synchronous Machines
Lgap Lstator 0
C+
B+
N
(Drotor/2) d
/2
A+
Lgap
Lrotor
/2
A
Lstator
S
+
B
C+
Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage
Amperes circuital law for this magnetic loop yields
Idc_rotor Nrotor
2 Hgap Lgap
Idc_rotor Nrotor
Hgap Idc_rotor
Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage
Bbase Bbase_ max cos
2
90
60
30
30
60
Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage
The base component is calculated using the Fourier series
3
Bgap Idc_roto r
Bgap Idc_roto r
Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage
Substitution of current and flux density results in:
Bbase_max Idc_rotor
Flux integral
Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage
Substitution of current and flux density results in:
Synchronous Machines
Lgap Lstator 0
C+
N
B
(Drotor/2) d
/2
ALgap
d Lrotor
/2
A+
Lstator
S
B+
C
Synchronous Machines
A_ac(t)
C+ B0.7 0.5 0.3
A
A+
B+
C
60
120
180 t deg
240
300
360
Synchronous Machines
B ( t) ABC(t) A ( t) C ( t)
B ( t)
C+
+
B
C (t )
A
A+
B+
C
Synchronous Machines
0.7 A_ac ( t ) 0.5 Wb B_ac ( t ) Wb C_ac ( t ) 0.1 Wb 0 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.1
60
120
180 t deg
240
300
360
t = 0 t = 45
C(t) B(t) ABC(0) B(t) A(t) A(t) C(t) ABC(t)
B(t)
C+
+
B
C(t)
C+ A
B+ 
C(t)
AB+
+
A+
A+
B(t)

C
B+
C
Synchronous Machines
t 0ms 0.1ms
1 ABC ( t ) 0.75 Wb AA ( t ) Wb BA ( t ) Wb CA ( t ) Wb 0 0.75 1 0.25 0.5 0.25 0 0.5
1 60
60
120
180 t deg
240
300
360
Synchronous Machines
Transformer Transmission line Network
Generator
Xsy Eg_ln Ig Vg_ln Xtr Vtrs_ln Isy ZLine Vnet_ln
Oneline diagram of synchronous generator network Singlephase equivalent circuit of synchronous generator network.
Simplified singlephase equivalent circuit of synchronous generator network.
Xsy_s Eg_s
Xtr Isy
ZLine Vnet_ln
Synchronous Machines
0deg 1deg 180deg
600 500 Pnet M W Pnetwork MW 400 300 200 100 0 0 30 60 90 deg 120 150 180