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By – Manish Srivastava
etc) .WCDMA OSI MODEL Radio Resource Control (RRC) Logical channels RLC RLC RLC (What is transmitted) Medium Access Control (MAC) Transport channels (How it is transmitted) Physical Layer Physical channels (Code.frequency.
is a “set of seven layers”. . maintains and ends communication with the receiving device. prepare it for the next layer. Layer 7: Application . application layer interfaces with the operating system.developed by ISO.Layer 6 takes the data provided by the Application layer and converts it into a standard format that the other layers can understand. For example if the user chooses to transfer files or read messages . Each of this layer performs certain tasks on the data to make it travel from one device to another over a network. Layer 6: Presentation .Layer 5 establishes. These tasks at each layer.This is the layer that actually interacts with the user.OSI reference model WCDMA protocol stack is based on OSI (open system interconnection) reference model OSI reference model . Layer 5: Session .
routing and addressing are handled here. voltage levels and timing. Layer 3: Network – This layer determines the way that the data will be sent to the recipient. Layer 2: Data link-This layer transforms the physical layer from a raw transmission facility to a reliable link. . It also provides error checking and recovery of data between the devices.This is the level of the actual hardware. transport layer integrates it into a single stream for the physical network.This layer maintains flow control of data . It defines the physical characteristics such as connections. Logical protocols. means that if data is coming from more than one application .Layer 4: Transport . Layer 1: Physical ..
Main jobs of physical layer are : 1. Interleaving 3. Spreading .This layer is responsible for transporting data across the available physical path (radio link). Synchronization 6. scrambling. modulation .For WCDMA the lower 3 layers are most important: Layer 1: Physical layer. Forward error correction(FEC) 2. Channel quality measurements 5. Transport channel multiplexing 4.
Error protection as a function of the desired QOS 5. In the other direction. layer 2 communicates with the adjoining network layer via Logical channels. Layer 2 : Data link layer – It is the upper neighbor of the physical layer. Acknowledgement of data blocks and requests for retransmission in case of errors . It delivers data block by block to layer 1 via transport channels (or fetches the data when receiving). Selection of the transport format based on current needs 3. The RLC and MAC layers have the following essential functions: 1. Mapping of logical channels on transport channels 2. 3GPP divides it into the radio link control (RLC) and the medium access control(MAC) layer. Data encryption 4.
Establishment and clear down a RRC connection 3. Broadcasting of system information 2. Querying and evaluation of physical layer measurements . Layer 3 : Network Layer(RRC Layer): RRC layer is directly above the layer 2 and is responsible for radio resource control. The main RRC tasks include : 1. Cell selection in IDLE mode 5. Management of radio connections 4.
we refer to different channels. the physical channel carries the payload data and govern the physical characteristics of the signal.WCDMA CHANNELS : Channels are simply a tool for specifying and describing the various communication and data related services. Various type of data is exchanged between UE and base station over the radio channel. To characterize this different type of data . the transport channel along with the logical channel again defines the way in which the data is transferred. transport and physical channels. The channels carried are categorized into three: logical. There are 3 different types of channels in WCDMA – . The logical channels define the way in which the data will be transferred.
Logical channels : Used for communication between Layer 3 (RRC) & Layer 2 (RLC/MAC). Depending on the information content . Control Channel (Signaling) Traffic Channel (User Data) Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Dedicated Traffic channels (DTCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) .logical channels are characterized into traffic & Control channels.1.
Control channels: Broadcast control channel ( BCCH) : Point to multipoint . All the UE’s are required to regularly read the information on the BCCH and on the PCCH Dedicated control channel (DCCH) : Point to point .DL It is a broadcasting channel that supplies all the UE’s with basic cell and network parameters(eg.UL/DL This channel is used to carry dedicated control information in both directions. . DCCH is provided in parallel to a DTCH for point to point signaling during an active connection Common control channel ( CCCH) : Point to multipoint .DL It transports paging information.UL/DL This bi-directional channel is used to transfer control information. Frequency lists . code lists etc). Paging control channel(PCCH) : Point to multipoint .
This is a bidirectional channel used to carry user data or traffic. Common traffic channel (CTCH) : Point to multipoint .TRAFFIC CHANNELS: Dedicated traffic channel (DTCH): Point to point . This means it is “dedicated” to a specific subscriber.DL It transfers dedicated user information for all . or a group of specified UE’s .UL/DL DTCH is used to transport user data from Node B to a specific UE and vice versa.
The physical layer combines the TFI information of different transport channels to the Transport format combination indicator(TFCI). Organize & Pack data from different services from the higher layers for suitable transportation.Transport Channels: Characterizes “HOW” data is transported over the air interface . . Unpack incoming data and sort for delivery to upper layers Offers flexible data speeds and channel encoding Efficient usage of radio resources. Transport channels are divided into common channels and dedicated channels. They are all unidirectional. Each transport channel is accompanied by the Transport format indicator(TFI).
This channel carries messages that alert the UE to incoming calls.Dedicated Transport Channel DCH (Dedicated Channel) This is used to transfer data to a particular UE. Each UE has its own DCH in each direction Common Transport Channel BCH (Broadcast Channel) This channel broadcasts information to the UEs in the cell to enable them to identify the network and the cell. Transports data from PCCH to UE over entire cell. data sessions or required maintenance such as re-registration. FACH (Forward Access Channel) PCH (Paging Channel) RACH (Random Access Channel) CPCH (Common Packet Channel) . Downlink. SMS messages. Transports small amount of data from BCCH/CCCH/DCCH/CTCH to either a specific UE or over the entire cell Downlink. This channel carries requests for service from UEs trying to access the system This channel provides additional capability beyond that of the RACH and for fast power control.
Mapping Logical To Transport Channels In The UE BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH CTCH DTCH BCH PCH CPCH RACH FACH DSCH DCH In The Node B BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH CTCH DTCH BCH PCH CPCH RACH FACH DSCH DCH .
Node B sends an immediate ACK or NACK on Downlin k PRAC H Physical Random Access Channel Uplink .Physical Channels Overview Chan nel Name Uplink/ Downlin k Description CPIC H Common CPICH Channel Downlin k Reference channel for estimation of received signal strength & quality. Fixed bit pattern which is stored in Physical layer. This channel carries the Forward Access Channel (FACH) providing control information. Determines coverage of a cell PPrimary Common CCPC Control Physical H Channel SSecondary CCPC Common Control H Physical Channel Downlin k This channel continuously broadcasts system identification and access control information. UE sends a preamble to Node B and on receipt. Used by the UE for call setup. and the Paging Channel (PACH) with messages for UEs that are registered on the network.
To ensure coherent detection it contains both necessary pilot symbols & commands for fast power control Used for WCDMA cell search and timing synchronization. Never spread or scrambled P/S SCH Downlink PDSC H Downlink This channel shares control information to UEs within the coverage area of the node B.PCPC H DPDC H Physical Common Packet Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel Uplink Uplink / Downlink Used by UE for packet data transfer involving small quantities Used for dedicated mode transfer of user data (from DCH) & associated control data (from DCCH) to & from UE DPCC H Dedicated Physical Control Channel Primary / Secondary Synchronization Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Uplink / Downlink Used for dedicated signaling to and from UE. .
On positive identification. AICH Acquisition Indication Channel Access Preamble . UE starts reading S-CCPCH to find page Determines whether system can be accessed or not. Uses simple bit sequences for operation UTRAN uses this to confirm reception of acquisition preamble sent by the UE on the PCPCH Channel informs UE about current availability of CPCH uplink transport channel for packet data use UTRAN uses this channel to inform UEs about any packet collisions on the uplink & also about the current assignment of the packet data channel.AICH CPICH Status Indicator Channel Collision Detection / Channel Assignment Indicator Channel Downlin k Downlin k Downlin k Downlin k AP-AICH CSICH CD/CA .PICH Paging Indication Channel Downlin k Paging messages are indicated to the intended UE by use of bit masks.ICH .
Mapping Transport To Physical Channels BCH PCH CPCH RACH FACH DSCH DCH PHYSICAL PCCPCH SPICH PCPCH CCPCH AP-AICH CSICH CD/CA-ICH PRACH AICH PDSCH P/S SCH DPDCH DPCCH .
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