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Example 18.

Determining a Suitable Binder Grade

- Correct for slow moving traffic: Move binder one grade higher. For
minimum 50 percent reliability, binder if PG 64-16. For minimum of 98 percent reliability, binder is PG 70-16. - Correct for ESAL > 30 x 108 . Move binder one grade higher. For minimum 50 percent reliability, binder is PG 70-16. for minimum 98 percent reliability, binder is PG 76-16.

Table 18.13 Section of Asphalt Binder Performance Grades on the Basis of Climate, Traffic Speed, and Traffic Volume

1. Select the types of loading. 2. Move horizontally to the high pavement design temperature. 3. Move down the low pavement design temperature. 4. Identify the Binder Grade. 5. ESALS > 107 consider increase of one high temperature grade. ESALS > 3 x 102 increase one high temperature grade.

Example: Standing load, high design temperature Low design temperature = - 25oC Grade = PG 70-28

Table 18.14

Coarse Aggregate Angularity Criteria

The clay content is defined as the percentage of clayey material in the

portion of aggregate passing through the 4.75-mm sieve. It is obtained by conducting the AASHTO T176 designated test Plastic Fines in Graded Aggregates and Soils by Use of Sand Equivalent Test.


Tapping Bottom of Cylinder

Manually-Operated Shaker


Clay Reading

Table 18.17 gives minimum allowable values for sand equivalent for different traffic loads.
Table 18.17 Clay Content Criteria Sand Equivalent Minimum, Percent 40 40 40 45 45 50 50

Traffic, Million ESALs

< 0.3 < 1 < 3 < 10 < 30 < 100 100

Gradation. The distribution of aggregate particle sizes for a given blend of

aggregate mixture is known as the design aggregate structure. The gradation system used for Superpave is based on the 0.45 gradation plot. In order to understand the gradation system used, it is first necessary to define certain gradation terms that the Superpave system uses. These are maximum sizes, nominal maximum sizes and maximum density gradation. Maximum size is defined is one sieve larger than the nominal maximum size, and

the nominal maximum size is one sieve larger than the first sieve that retains more
than 10 percent of the aggregate. Five mixture gradations are specified in the Superpave system, as shown in Table 18.18. Maximum density gradation is obtained when the aggregate particles fit together in their densest form. An important characteristic of the 0.45 power plot is that the maximum density gradation for a sample of soil is given by the straight line joining the maximum size and the origin (Figure 18.16).

An acceptable aggregate gradation is defined by specifying control points on the

maximum density gradation chart for the smallest sieve size (0.075 mm), the nominal maximum size, and an intermediate size sieve (2.36 mm). An acceptable soil blend therefore should have maximum density gradation line that lies within these control points. Table 18.18 Superpave Mixture Gradation


Volumetric Trial Mixture Design

This consists of: Selection of design aggregate structure Determining trial percentage of asphalt binder for each trial aggregate blend Evaluating trial mix designs Obtaining design asphalt binder content

Determining Trial Percentage of Asphalt Binder for each Trial Aggregate Blend