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Space

Module 9.2 Part 2


Image: New Horizons satellite at Pluto in June 2015
Artists impression
Syllabus 9.2.3
Mass and Gravitational Fields
The gravitational field around a
massive object is radial in
shape, with the direction of the
field being towards the massive
body
The strength of the gravitational
field obeys an inverse square
law i.e. the gravitational field
strength decreases in proportion
the the reciprocal of the square
of the distance from the objects
centre of mass
describe a gravitational field in the region surrounding a massive object in terms of its effects on other masses in it

Mass and Gravitational Fields
describe a gravitational field in the region surrounding a massive object in terms of its effects on other masses in it
The gravitational field of the Earth is not uniform...
unless just a
small region of
the total field is
considered
The gravitational field of a massive body such as
the Earth causes objects near the surface to
undergo projectile motion, and more distant
objects to undergo orbital motion
uniform field
Factors Affecting the Gravitational Force
The strength of the gravitational force
between two masses is
proportional to the mass of each object
inversely proportional to the square of the
distance between the centres of mass of
the two objects
The force is also dependent on the
Universal Gravitational Constant - it is
believed that this is a fixed quantity for
our Universe
present information and use available evidence to discuss the factors affecting the strength of the gravitational force

F =
Gm
1
m
2
d
2
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
Every particle in the
universe attracts every
other particle in the
universe with a force that
is proportional to the
product of the masses and
inversely proportional to
the square of the distance
between the particles.
define Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
Good references
http://www.physchem.co.za/Motion/Gravity.htm#Reasoning
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l3c.html

F =
Gm
1
m
2
d
2
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
Calculate the gravitational force between the Earth and the Moon.
The mass of the Moon is 7.3483 x 10
22
kg and the mass of the Earth is
5.98 x 10
24
kg.
The distance between the Earth and the Moon is 384,402 km.
G = 6.67300 x 10
-11
m
3
kg
-1
s
-2

m
M
m
E
d
F =
Gm
1
m
2
d
2
solve problems and analyse information using [Newtons Universal Law of Gravitation]
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
solve problems and analyse information using [Newtons Universal Law of Gravitation]
m
Earth
= 5.97 x 10
24
kg m
Sun
= 1.99 x 10
30
kg
distance from the Sun to the Earth = 150 million km
What is the gravitational force between the Earth and the Sun?
F =
Gm
1
m
2
d
2
=
6.67 10
11
1.99 10
30
5.97 10
24
(1.5 10
11
)
2
= 3.5210
22
N
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
solve problems and analyse information using [Newtons Universal Law of Gravitation]
F =
Gm
1
m
2
d
2
m
1
= 65 kg m
2
= 20 000 000 kg
distance between neighbours = 2000 m
=
6.67 10
11
65 20000000
(2000)
2
= 2.210
7
N
What would be the gravitational force between you and and a 20 000
tonne ship 2 km away?
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
solve problems and analyse information using [Newtons Universal Law of Gravitation]

F =
Gm
1
m
2
d
2
What is the gravitational force between you and the
person sitting closest to you? [G = 6.67 x 10
11
]
Answer ~ 3 x 10
7
N
Brain Break
What is a law?
State an example of a law.
Outline three ways in which laws are validated.
About Laws
What is a law?

State an example of a law.

Outline three ways in which laws
are validated.

A law is a concise statement of how

Newtons laws of motion and his law of
universal gravitation are examples of laws.
Answers
Laws are validated through being
1. Being consistent with observations of
phenomena to which the law applies.
2. tested and confirmed using controlled
experiments designed to test the law.
3. able to make predictions than can be
tested and verified.
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
Do exercises at the website below

solve problems and analyse information using
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l3c.html
F =
Gm
1
m
2
d
2
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation

discuss the importance of Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation in understanding and calculating the motion of satellites
r
3
T
2
=
GM
4t
2
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation

discuss the importance of Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation in understanding and calculating the motion of satellites
F =
Gm
1
m
2
d
2
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
Isaac Newton proposed the Law of
Gravity a universal force that
governed both projectile motion on the
Earth, the motion of the Moon around
the Earth and the motion of the
planets around the Sun

Newtons three laws of motion apply
to planetary motion as they do to
motion on the Earths surface

Law of inertia
F = ma
Forces act in pairs
discuss the importance of Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation in understanding and calculating the motion of satellites
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
Before Newton, nobody understood
what force kept the planets moving
in their orbits.

Newton realised that the same force
of gravity governed the motion of
projectiles on the Earth and the
motion of planets around the Sun

Gravitational forces act between all
objects having mass
discuss the importance of Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation in understanding and calculating the motion of satellites
The gravitational pull of the Sun provides
the required centripetal force
F =
GMm
r
2
=
mv
2
r
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
Outline the views held about
motion of objects on the Earths
surface and motion of celestial
objects prior to Newton. (2M)
Identify the major advance in
scientific understanding brought
about by Newtons universal law
of gravitation. (1M)
Evaluate the importance of
Newtons law of universal
gravitation in changing the nature
of scientific thinking. (5M)
H1. evaluates how major advances in scientific understanding and technology have
changed the direction or nature of scientific thinking
Prior to Newton, people believed that
celestial motion was governed by
different laws to those that determined
the motion of objects on the Earths
surface. Ideas about the causes of
celestial motion were not based on
scientific thinking that related causes
and effects.
Newton advanced scientific
understanding by deducing that
planetary motion and motion of objects
on the Earths surface were both
determined by gravity
The Slingshot Effect
After flying past Venus at an
altitude of 16,000 km on February
10, 1990, the Galileo spacecraft
swung past Earth at an altitude of
960 km on Dec. 8, 1990. That flyby
increased Galileo's speed enough
to send it on a two-year elliptical
orbit around the Sun.
The spacecraft returned for a
second Earth swing-by on Dec. 8,
1992, at an altitude of 303 km.
With this, Galileo left Earth for the
third and final time and headed
toward Jupiter.
identify that a slingshot effect can be provided by planets for space probes
The Slingshot Effect
The Cassini spacecraft was
launched in 1997, flew twice by
Venus, and then passed 1200 km
from the Earth. On Dec. 30th
2000, it passed Jupiter, and finally
arrived at Saturn in July 2004.
Cassini, increased its speed by 5.5
kilometres per second as it passed
Earth. And the total effect of the
probe's four planetary flybys was
21.44 kilometres per second.
identify that a slingshot effect can be provided by planets for space probes
The Slingshot Effect
The slingshot effect is used to
increase - or sometimes to decrease -
the the speed, and to change the
direction of motion of an interplanetary
spacecraft.
Three bodies must always be involved
for the slingshot effect to operate.
The satellites (usually a planet and an
artificial one) must both be in orbit
around a third central body.
As a result of the slingshot effect, the
satellite gains momentum relative to
the central body
identify that a slingshot effect can be provided by planets for space probes
See: SlingshotEffectSattEarth.mov
Successive positions of the Earth and a passing
satellite interacting gravitationally.
T1 shows the path of the satellite altered by the
slingshot effect. T2 shows the path had there
been no interaction.
The Slingshot Effect
The momentum gained by the
satellite is not transferred back to
the planet after the satellite-planet
interaction.

Momentum is transferred between
the two because of the gravitational
interaction between them.
To gain momentum the satellite
must approach the planet so that it
passes on the side of the planet
away from the Sun.
identify that a slingshot effect can be provided by planets for space probes
The Slingshot Effect
Interplanetary satellites use the
slingshot effect to reach their
destinations without requiring
large amounts of fuel.
Looping orbits take the satellite
close to the planet from which
momentum is transferred,
increasing the velocity.
The trade-off is a journey which
takes a long time, since several
orbits around the Sun may be
necessary to achieve the final goal.
identify that a slingshot effect can be provided by planets for space probes
The Slingshot Effect
Voyager 2 left the Earth at about 36 km/s
relative to the Sun. Moving away from
the Sun, it loses much of the initial
velocity the launch vehicle provided.
Nearing Jupiter, its speed is increased
by the planet's gravity, and the
spacecraft's velocity exceeds solar
system escape velocity.
Voyager departed Jupiter with more Sun-
relative velocity than it had on arrival.
The happened at Saturn and Uranus.

Diagram courtesy Steve Matousek, JPL.
identify that a slingshot effect can be provided by planets for space probes
The Slingshot Effect - New Horizon
In January 2006 a satellite
called New Horizons was
launched from Earth on a 10-
year journey to Pluto (due to
arrive June 2015)
The large rocket used propelled
it away from the Earth at 15
km/s - the fastest ever
It reached the distance of the
Moons orbit in just 9 hours
It will undergo a slingshot
manoeuvre at Jupiter in 2008
The Slingshot Effect - Dawn Asteroid Mission
In September 2007 the Dawn satellite was
launched from Earth on a, 4.8-billion km
journey to the asteroids Ceres and Vesta
Dawn will make use of ion propulsion
engines using xenon gas during its journey
Dawn's will carry out measurements and
observations of the asteroid Vesta in 2011
and the dwarf planet Ceres in 2015.
Use the diagram to describe some aspects
of the mission in words.
Dawn will take 17 months to reach Mars,
where it will undergo a gravity assist
(slingshot) manoeuvre. Four years after
launch it will reach Vesta where
observations will be carried out for 9
months. It will then travel for 33 more
months to study Ceres for 5 months.
Ref: dawn-launch.pdf
Slingshot effect Mercury Messenger
Slingshot effect Mercury Messenger
KEY EVENTS:

August 3, 2004 -- MESSENGER Launch
August 2005 -- Earth flyby
October 2006 -- Venus flyby
June 2007 -- Venus flyby
January 2008 -- Mercury flyby
October 2008 -- Mercury flyby
September 2009 -- Mercury flyby
March 2011 -- Yearlong science orbit of Mercury begins
The Slingshot Effect - Dawn Asteroid Mission
By studying both asteroids, scientists more accurately can compare
and contrast the two.
Dawn's science instrument suite will measure elemental and mineral
composition, shape, surface topography, and tectonic history, and will
also seek water-bearing minerals.
Would you trust these people to put you in space?
Syllabus 9.2.4a
Syllabus 9.2.4b
Introduction to the Theory of Special Relativity
Prior to Einstein, length, mass
and time were thought to be
absolute quantities.

This meant that it was thought
that the the properties of space
and time were fixed, and in no
way depended on the location or
state of motion of the observer.

Einstein demonstrated that
length, mass and time are not
absolute quantities. This is
relativity
Albert Einstein
2005 Happy 100
th
Anniversary!
Brain Break!
The Nature of Light
Two Models
Isaac Newton proposed in the 1600s
that light was a stream of particles -
this model successfully explained the
observed behaviour of light such as
reflection and refraction.
The alternative wave theory of light,
proposed by the Dutch Christian
Huygens, also explained reflection and
refraction.
There was no clear argument or
phenomenon to exclusively support
either model of light.
The Triumph of the Wave Model
Diffraction and interference
In the 1800s new phenomena
were discovered, diffraction
and interference, that could not
be explained with the particle
model of light
D
i
f
f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

I
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

Youngs Experiment Confirms Wave Theory
Light interference was demonstrated by
Thomas Young in the 1800s

Light passed through two very narrow slits
produced two sets of waves waves.

Superposition of the waves on a screen
resulted in the production of an
interference pattern.

Unless light was a wave, no interference
pattern could ever be observed on the
screen - the particle theory of light could
not explain the pattern.
Wave vs Particle 1-0
In the latter half of the19
th
century, the wave model became the
accepted model used to understand the observed properties of light

The wave theory became successful because it successfully explained
the phenomena of diffraction and interference, which could not be
explained using the alternative particle model.

Problems for the Wave Theory
All other types of waves require
a medium for their propagation
It had been deduced from
experiments studying the
interference of light that light
had to be a transverse wave
However, transverse waves
could not travel through the
body of a liquid or gaseous
medium recall that sound
which can travel through liquids
and gases is a longitudinal
wave.
The Aether Model for Light Transmission
Hypothesis
there was medium throughout
all of space through which light
travelled
The medium was called the
luminiferous aether* (or light
carrying aether) or simply
aether
outline the features of the aether model for the transmission of light
Scientists were at the time also trying to understand James Clerk
Maxwells theory that light propagated like a wave - the aether
model could help with this understanding (above - Maxwells
famous electromagnetism equations)
* sometimes spelled ether
The Aether Model for Light Transmission
Properties of the Aether

The aether either had to be a solid, or at least have the elastic
properties of a solid - since only solids could transmit transverse
waves.

To account for the enormous speed of light, the aether had to be
more rigid than steel!

The Earth and other planets had to move through the aether in space

The aether had to penetrate all matter through which light travelled.
outline the features of the aether model for the transmission of light
The Aether, Newton and Relative Motion
Newton
Newton realised that the motion of an
object had to be described relative to
another object - there appeared to be no
universal reference frame against which
all motion could be measured.
The realisation, coming from Newtons
work, that all bodies in the Universe were
in motion, resulted in the uncomfortable
idea that there was no absolute frame of
reference against which motion could be
measured.
The existence of the aether was an
hypothesis eagerly embraced because it
provided a possible frame of reference
against which all motion could be
measured
The Michelson-Morley Experiment

A paradigm shift in scientific thinking
was precipitated by one of the most
famous experiments in science

The purpose of the Michelson-
Morley experiment was to detect
and measure the relative motion of
the Earth through the aether

The Michelson-Morley experiment
relied upon the interference of two
rays of light travelling paths
perpendicular to each other
describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
An experiment that didnt work as expected
The Michelson-Morley experiment
The Michelson-Morley Experiment

The rays of light travelling paths
A and B produced an
interference pattern, seen by
the observer
It was predicted, using proven
principles, that if the Earth was
moving through the aether, that
when the apparatus was rotated
about a vertical axis, the
interference pattern would
change
describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
Measuring the Earths Motion Through the Aether



describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
Rotating the apparatus would allow the direction of the aether wind to be deduced
The Michelson-Morley Apparatus
Michelson and Morley, despite
careful experimental design and
months of work were unable to
detect any change in the
interference pattern produced by
their apparatus.

Brain Break
Consequences of moving through the aether
If the device is at rest relative to
the ether, a particular
interference pattern will be seen
by the observer and this pattern
will be independent of the
orientation of the apparatus

However, if the device is
actually passing through the
aether...

describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
Observer
Consequences of moving through the aether
then it was predicted that light
requiring different times to travel
the two different paths, A and B,
would result in a different
interference pattern

As the velocity relative to the
aether changes with the Earths
motion around the Sun, a
different interference pattern
would be observed.

describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
Observer
Consequences of moving through the aether
describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
Michelson and Morley thus developed their experiment, using the wave
properties of light to detect and measure the motion of the Earth through the
aether using the interference pattern from two beams of light
The interference pattern would change if the paths of the light beams relative to
the aether changed due to the apparatus being rotated and due to the Earths
motion around the Sun
The known speed of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun enabled Michelson and
Morley to accurately calculate the predicted effect of this motion on the
interference pattern
describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
Interpreting the Michelson-Morley Results
the Earth drags the aether along with it
there is no aether
motion through the aether distorts the apparatus,
cancelling out light path length differences
Conclusions
The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment was bewildering
Attempts were made to explain the unexpected result including
This all happened in 1887
These all had problems which caused them to
be rejected

Question Time
Describe the apparatus set
up by Michelson and
Morley to detect the motion
of the Earth through the
aether.

Remember Mr Pitts deefer
rule
D for describe - D for
diagram!
Question Time
Outline the physical
phenomenon on which the
Michelson-Morley
experiment was based.

describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
Evaluating the Experiment
The aether hypothesis was based on sound science - that light was
transverse wave and, at the time, all transverse waves were known to
require a medium through which to propagate
The Michelson-Morley experiment was of great value because its
careful design would enable the existence of the hypothetical aether
could be confirmed using well-understood principles involving relative
motion of the Earth through the aether and interference of light
It was also of great value because the conclusion that there was no
measurable motion of the Earth through an aether ultimately led to
the rejection of the aether model
The Michelson-Morley result was consistent with Einsteins 1905
postulate that the speed of light was not dependent on the relative
motion between the source of light and the observer

describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
Evaluating the Experiment

The experiment to measure the Earths motion through the aether was
carefully designed:

The well-understood wave phenomenon of interference was the principal on which
the motion through the aether would be detectable
The magnitude of the effect of the relative motion of the Earth through the aether was
calculated and its effect on the interference pattern predicted
The experiment was meticulously designed to produce and measure the predicted
variation of the light interference pattern caused by Earths motion through the aether
Experimental variables were identified and controlled
Variables that would affect the results adversely were identified and eliminated - e.g.
floating the apparatus in mercury to eliminate vibrations
describe and evaluate the Michelson-Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
Evaluating the Experiment
The experiment was repeated
meticulously at different
times/places as the Earth orbited
the Sun (this is to establish that
the results were reliable)
Attempts were made to account
for the predicted changes in the
interference pattern and because
none of these were ultimately
acceptable
It led ultimately to the conclusion
that there was no aether
The Michelson-Morley Experiment
The Michelson-Morley
experiment demonstrated that
the speed of light is
independent of the motion of
observer or the source.
gather and process information to interpret the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment
The Michelson-Morley Experiment
The theories
Aether model
Theory of relativity
[Maxwells electromagnetic theory]

Although Einstein did not know
about the Michelson-Morley
experiment until after hed
proposed his theory of relativity,
the results of the MM
experiment were consistent with
the theory of relativity and
inconsistent with the aether
theory
discuss the role of the Michelson-Morley experiments in making determinations about competing theories
Inertial Frames of Reference
Consider the situation in which a coin is dropped inside a moving car.
Observer in car: coin drops straight to the ground
Observer outside car: coin follows a parabolic trajectory
Both frames of reference are inertial frames, and the coin takes the
same time to fall to the floor from both frames of reference.
outline the nature of inertial frames of reference
Inertial Frames of Reference
Consider a ball dropped from a height of one metre
outline the nature of inertial frames of reference
On the surface of the Earth In a lift moving at constant speed




The ball takes the same time to fall for both observers. There is no way the
person in the lift can determine, using the observations of the falling ball,
whether he is stationary or moving at a constant speed.
Both reference frames are inertial
Non-inertial Reference Frames


perform an investigation to help distinguish between non-inertial and inertial frames of reference
An accelerating lift is an example of a non-inertial frame of reference
scales




scales
F
R

mg
EF = ma
Taking up as +ve
F
R
- mg = ma
F
R
= m(g + a)
If a = 0 then F
R
= mg normal weight
If a is positive then F
R
= m(g + a) weight increases
If a is negative then F
R
= m(g - a) weight decreases
F
R
is reaction force
= reading on scales
Non-inertial Reference Frames
If this apparatus is set up in a lift
the reading measured by the
force sensor is greater than the
weight of the object when the
acceleration is upwards and
less than the weight of the
object when the acceleration is
downwards
Question: How can the
acceleration be downwards if
the lift is travelling upwards?
perform an investigation to help distinguish between non-inertial and inertial frames of reference
Non-inertial Reference Frames
Results - weight of 200 g mass in ascending lift
The lift is a non-inertial frame of reference
perform an investigation to help distinguish between non-inertial and inertial frames of reference
Non-inertial Reference Frames
Other examples of non-inertial
reference frames (and evidence
for this fact)
A car travelling at uniform speed
around a roundabout (an
accelerometer sensor shows
that there is a constant
magnitude acceleration towards
the centre; a pendulum swings
away from the centre and
maintains a constant angle to
the vertical)
perform an investigation to help distinguish between non-inertial and inertial frames of reference

Non-inertial Reference Frames
Other examples of non-inertial reference frames (and evidence for this
fact)
A car that is increasing its speed uniformly in the forward direction (a
pendulum hanging in the car swings towards the back of the car and
makes a constant angle to the vertical)
perform an investigation to help distinguish between non-inertial and inertial frames of reference
Acceleration of car
Relativity (UNSW Website)
www.phys.unsw.edu.au/einsteinlight/

http://www.cell-action.com/einstein/index.html
[Excellent animated presentation]

http://www.wyp2005.org/

Einstein said..

"Put your hand on a hot stove for a minute, and it seems
like an hour. Sit with a pretty girl for an hour, and it seems
like a minute. THAT'S relativity."

Principle of Relativity
The special theory of relativity deals with events that are observed and
measured from inertial reference frames
Inertial reference frames can be described as ones in which
Newtons first law - the law of inertia - is valid
Newtons First Law: If an object experiences no net force it remains at
rest or it continues in motion at constant velocity
Relativity principle states that the laws of physics are the same in all
inertial reference frames.
In classical (Newtonian) physics, mass, space and time are
considered absolute, their measurement does not change from one
reference frame to another.
discuss the principle of relativity
Question Time
Einstein developed two theories of relativity!

The theory of
Special Relativity
and the
Theory of General Relativity

Question
What is special about
Special Relativity?

Special relativity deals only with motion in inertial frames of reference - that is, ones that are not
accelerating.
[Einsteins Theory of General Relativity - not in this course - deals with accelerated frames of
reference and gravity]
Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity
1. Absolute uniform motion cannot be detected.
2. The speed of light is independent of the motion of the source.

discuss the principle of relativity
The second of these postulates is contrary to our everyday experience
It must be accepted, since it is based on observational evidence.
The postulates consequences completely change the way we perceive the Universe!
At different velocities, distances and times take on different values!
Length, mass and time all depend on the motion of the observer!
The Principle of Relativity
The speed of light is measured to be the
same in all frames of reference.

This is a startling statement!

discuss the principle of relativity
The Principle of Relativity
The speed of a light flash emitted by the space station is
measured to be c by observers on both the space station and
the rocket ship.
discuss the principle of relativity
gasp
Albert Einstein
describe the significance of Einsteins assumption of the constancy of the speed of light
A billboard in Paris
Einstein and the Speed of Light
Eighteen years after the
Michelson-Morley experiment
in 1905, Einstein published a
paper in which he presented
the consequences of his
startling proposition that
describe the significance of Einsteins assumption of the constancy of the speed of light
Einstein and the Speed of Light


Light travels at the same
speed in all reference frames
and that the speed of light
does not depend on the
relative motion of the source
and the observer

Electromagnetic waves did
not require a medium through
which to travel!

describe the significance of Einsteins assumption of the constancy of the speed of light
Einstein and the Speed of Light
The speed of a light flash emitted by the ambulance is still
measured to be c by observers in the car in front.
describe the significance of Einsteins assumption of the constancy of the speed of light
gasp
The Ultimate Speed Limit

The Ultimate Speed Limit

Consequences of the constancy of c
If the speed of light does
not vary

then mass, length and time
are cannot be absolute
quantities
!!!

Measured lengths and times
depend on the relative motion
between the observer and the
event being observed

identify that if c is constant then space and time become relative
Consequences of the constancy of c
From the sprinters frame of
reference, the track is less than 100
metres in length.


During the race, the sprinters watch,
seen by the stationary race timer,
ticks off less than 10 s.


The difference is not significant at
speeds of 10 m s
1
. But near light
speed it is a very significant effect.
identify that if c is constant then space and time become relative
The athletic track is 100 m long and the
stationary race timer records a time of
10 s for the race
Einsteins Thought Experiments
analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between
thought and reality
It was impossible to achieve the kinds
of speeds necessary to test his ideas
(especially while working in the patent
office), so Einstein used Gedanken
experiments or Thought experiments.
Young Einstein
Gedanken
(Thought)
experiments
Einsteins Thought Experiments
A light clock

The light will bounce back
and forth between the
parallel mirrors, each
journey back and forth
"ticking off" equal intervals
of time.

analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between
thought and reality
Einsteins Thought Experiments
What happens when the clock moves?



analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between
thought and reality
In this imaginary clock, the
flash goes off, light bounces
off the mirror, is detected at
the photocell, triggering a
tick sound and another
flash.
photocell flash
mirror
1.5 m
Einsteins Thought Experiments
What happens when the clock moves?



analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between
thought and reality
photocell flashbulb
mirror
1.5 m
This clock should
produce a tick
every how many
seconds?
t
d
v
m
m s
= =

2 15
3 10
8
( . )
/
t = 10
-8
s
analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between
thought and reality
How did the
photon get
here?
Einsteins Thought Experiments
Einstein carried out a thought experiment involving a clock in a box car
A modern version could involve a flash of light and a photocell detector
An observer (a) moving with the space ship observes the light flash
moving vertically between the mirrors of the light clock.
An observer (b) who is passed by the moving ship knows the flash of
light must have moved along a diagonal path, since in the time it takes
the light to go across and back, the ship moves forward.
analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between
thought and reality
Einsteins Thought Experiments
The longer distance taken by the light flash in following the diagonal
path must be divided by a correspondingly longer time interval to
yield an unvarying value for the speed of light.
analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between
thought and reality
How did the
photon get
here?
Einsteins Thought Experiments
Einstein carried out a thought experiment involving a clock in a box car
A modern version could involve a flash of light and a photocell detector
Since the speed of light is the same in both frames of reference, the clock
on the train (the moving clock), as seen by the stationary observer, must
be ticking more slowly than the stationary clock.
analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between
thought and reality
Time Dilation
All moving clocks appear to run slow.
This stretching out of time is called time
dilation, which has nothing to do with the
mechanics of clocks, but instead arises
from the nature of time itself.
Movie: Relativity.car.avi
Brain Break
What does all this mean?
analyse and interpret some of Einsteins thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between
thought and reality
To a stationary observer, moving clocks
appear to be ticking more slowly!
And the faster the clock is moving,
the more slowly it appears to tick!
Although we used a light clock, the type of
clock used in this experiment is immaterial

It really is time itself that is moving at
different rates for the two observers!
Brain Break!
Einsteins Thought Experiments
Relativity predicted
1. Time dilation
2. Length contraction
3. Mass increase
analyse information to discuss the relationship between theory and the evidence supporting it, using Einsteins predictions based
on relativity that were made many years before evidence was available to support it
Evidence supporting
1. Atomic clock on plane and
GPS atomic clocks
2. Particle accelerators - path
length from frame of reference
of high-speed particle is
shorter
3. Particle accelerators -
magnetic fields used to control
moving particles have to factor
in the increased particle mass
due to relativistic effects
Einsteins Thought Experiments
analyse information to discuss the relationship between theory and the evidence supporting it, using Einsteins predictions based
on relativity that were made many years before evidence was available to support it
GPS navigation is a application of physics which has had a significant impact on society, making travel by ship
and plane safer, and used in cars, GPS adds to the safety and ease of navigation, improving travel times for
drivers. With GPS, companies can track delivery vehicles, improving efficiency.
Einstein Through the Eyes of Time
Defining the Metre
In contrast to the original definition
of the metre
one ten-millionth of the length of the
earth's meridian along a quadrant
(one-fourth the polar circumference of
the earth)
The following definition now
applies
The metre is the length of the path
travelled by light in vacuum during a
time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a
second


discuss the concept that length standards are defined in terms of time in contrast to the original metre standard
Simultaneity
A boxcar moves with uniform
velocity
Two lightning bolts strike the
ends
The lightning bolts leave
marks (A and B) on the car
and (A and B) on the ground
Two observers are present:
O in the boxcar and O on
the ground
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation

Simultaneity
Observer O is midway between the
points of lightning strikes on the
ground, A and B
Observer O is midway between the
points of lightning strikes on the
boxcar, A and B
The light reaches observer O at the
same time
He concludes the light has travelled
at the same speed over equal
distances
Observer O concludes the lightning
bolts occurred simultaneously
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation

Simultaneity
By the time the light has reached observer
O, observer O has moved
The light from B reaches the observer O
before the light from A reaches her
The two observers must find that light
travels at the same speed
Observer O concludes the lightning struck
the front of the boxcar before it struck the
back (they were not simultaneous events)
because O knows that the distance
travelled by the light is the same (since he
is in the middle of the train) and therefore,
because he saw the strike from B first, he
deduces that that event happened first
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wteiuxyqtoM
See Simultaneity Einstein TOR.mov
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation

Simultaneity
Summary
Two events that are simultaneous in
one reference frame are in general
not simultaneous in a second
reference frame moving relative to
the first
That is, simultaneity is not an
absolute concept, but rather one that
depends on the state of motion of the
observer
In the thought experiment, both
observers are correct, because there
is no preferred inertial reference
frame

explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation

Massenergy Equivalence
Mass and energy are inter-
convertible
- Nuclear fission / fusion
- Particle / antiparticle annihilation

E = mc
2


explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation
Length Contraction
In figure A, the rocket is at rest
relative to the Earth and
distances measured from either
frame of reference on the other
are the same
In figure B, the observer on
Earth sees the rocket moving
away and because of the
relative motion, the rocket
appears shorter, l
v
, than it was
at rest, l
o

explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation

l
v
= l
0
1 v
2
/ c
2
Length Contraction
In figure C, the observer on
rocket sees the Earth moving
away, and because of the
relative motion, the Earth
appears flattened along the axis
of motion
l
o
is the diameter of the Earth as
seen by the observer at rest and
l
v
is the contracted diameter of
the Earth (along the axis of
motion)
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation

l
v
= l
0
1 v
2
/ c
2
Length Contraction
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation
A fast-moving plane at
different speeds.
[view this live!]
v = 10% c
v = 80% c
v = 99.9%
c
v = 99% c
Length Contraction and Muon Decay
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation
Cosmic Ray Muons: Muons are produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions between ultra-high energy
particles and air-molecule nuclei. But they decay (lifetime t = 2.2 s) on their way to the Earths surface:
No relativistic correction
With relativistic correction
Top of the atmosphere
Now time dilation says that muons
will live longer in the Earths frame,
that is, t will increase if v is large.
And their average velocity is 0.994c !
Length Contraction and Muon Decay
From our reference frame on the Earths surface, the
lifetime of the moving muon is much longer than the
lifetime in the muons frame of reference.

Applying the time dilation formula to a muon travelling
at say 2.99995 x 10
8
m s
1
, results in the muons
lifetime of 2.2 s dilating to 380 s.

At this speed, given the lifetime of the muon
observed from our frame of reference, the muon can
travel a distance

d = vt
d = 2.99995 x 10
8
x 380 x 10
6
= 114 km
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation
t
v
=
t
o
1
v
2
c
2
Length Contraction and Muon Decay
Muons are created in the upper atmosphere when high energy cosmic rays strike atoms
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
In the laboratory, this decay occurs in an average time of t = 2.2 s
Two types of muons decay into electrons and positrons as shown below: [not needed for HSC]
Travelling at the top speed available (c), the muons should decay in a
distance ct = 660 m
In fact, observations on mountains indicate that the muon flux
only drops by a factor of two after d = 6000 m
e
e v v

+ +
+ +

v v + +

e
e
Length Contraction and Muon Decay
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation
The muons decay time as measured in our reference frame is thus

t = d/c = 20
This time dilation implies that the muons must be travelling so fast that

t/t = 9.1
c v 994 . 0 =
The observed behaviour of muons is consistent with the predictions of special
relativity. This fact helps to validate the theory of relativity. (H2)
Length Contraction
The Tevatron at Fermilab in Chicago accelerates protons and antiprotons to almost
1000 GeV, or one teraelectron volt (1 TeV). At this speed, they are travelling only 300
kilometres per hour slower than the speed of light, the protons and antiprotons circle
the Tevatron in opposite directions. The beams ultimately collide with each other at
creating bursts of new particles.
Question
The speed of light = 299 792 458 m / s
1. Deduce the speed of the protons in the Tevatron.
2. If the path length that the protons follow at this speed is 6.44 km relative to a scientist
working at the Tevatron, what distance do the protons travel in their frame of
reference?
1. v = 299 792 458 - 83.3 = 299 792 374.7 m / s
2.

l
v
= l
o
1
v
2
c
2
= 6.44 1
299787458
2
299792458
2
= 0.037 km
Time Dilation
Time passes more slowly in a
frame of reference moving relative
to an observer.
This real effect is called time
dilation.
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation

t
v
=
t
0
1v
2
/c
2
Galileo - Newton Einstein
Time Dilation
Time passes more slowly in a
frame of reference moving relative
to an observer.
This real effect is called time
dilation.
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation

t
v
=
t
0
1v
2
/c
2
Einstein - Station F.O.R. Einstein - Train F.O.R.
Time Dilation - Twin Paradox
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation
The Set-up
Mary and Frank are twins. Mary, an astronaut,
leaves on a trip many light years (ly) from the
Earth at great speed and returns; Frank
decides to remain safely on Earth.



The Problem
Frank knows that Marys clocks measuring her age must run slow, so she will return
younger than he. However, Mary (who also knows about time dilation) claims that
Frank is also moving relative to her, and so his clocks must run slow.

The Paradox
Who, in fact, is younger upon Marys return?
Time Dilation - Twin Paradox Resolution
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation
Franks clock is in an inertial system during the entire
trip. But Marys clock is not. As long as Mary is traveling
at constant speed away from Frank, both of them can
argue that the other twin is aging less rapidly.

But when Mary slows down to turn around, she leaves
her original inertial system and eventually returns in a
completely different
inertial system.

Marys claim is no longer valid,
because she doesnt remain
in the same inertial system.
Frank does, however, and
Mary ages less than Frank.
x
t
Time Dilation - Atomic Clock Validation
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation
Two planes travelled east and west,
respectively, around the Earth as it
rotated. Atomic clocks on the planes
were compared with similar clocks
kept at the US Naval Observatory to
show that the moving clocks in the
planes ran slower.
The results of this experiment
validated Einsteins theory.

Travel Predicted Observed
Eastward -40 23 ns -59 10 ns Traveling twin
Westward 275 21 ns 273 7 ns Stay-at-home twin
Mass Dilation
Objects moving relative to the observer
increase in mass compared with their
masses when at rest relative to the
observer.

Calculate the mass of a proton at its
maximum speed in the Fermilab Tevatron.
Proton rest mass is 1.67262158 10
-27
kg.
v = 299 792 374.7 m / s
c = 299 792 458

The mass increases by a factor of 1341
times the rest mass.
explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation

m
v
=
m
0
1v
2
/c
2
Special Relativity

explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: (a) the relativity of simultaneity (b) the
equivalence between mass and energy (c) length contraction (d) time dilation (e) mass dilation
Relativity Video
Watch the Ustinov video clip . . .

Einsteins Universe Relativity.mov

Special Relativity

solve problems and analyse information using
Special Relativity
solve problems and analyse information using
c = 299 792 458 m s
-1

(a) What will be the mean life time of a muon measured in a laboratory if it
is travelling at v = 0.6c with respect to the laboratory? Its mean life time
at rest is 2.2 x 10
-6
s.
(b) How far does a muon travel in the laboratory, before decaying?
Solution (a) t
v
=
t
o
1
v
2
c
2
=
2.2 10
6
1
(0.6c)
2
c
2
= 2.75 x 10
-6
s
Solution (b) s = vt = 0.6 x c x 2.75 x 10
-6
s = 494.7 m
Special Relativity
See Space notes for
extended discussion
discuss the implications of mass increase, time dilation and length contraction for space travel
G
a
l
a
x
i
e
s

A word from the creator
This PowerPoint presentation was prepared by Greg Pitt of
Hurlstone Agricultural High School.

Please feel free to use this material as you see fit, but if you
use substantial parts of this presentation, leave this slide in
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Initial Acceleration of Space Shuttle