PLANT TISSUES AND ORGANS

Plant Cell Types (Support and Storage)

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Parenchyma cells are the most numerous type of cell in young plants. Parenchyma cells usually have thin walls and large central vacuoles. The photosynthetic cells in leaves are parenchyma cells filled with chloroplasts. These cells are called mesophyll cells. Some parenchyma cells store lipids or starch (potatoes). Other parenchyma cells serve as “packing material” and play a vital role in supporting the stem especially in nonwoody stems.

Collenchyma cells are supporting cells that lay down primary cell walls that are thick in the corners. Collenchyma cells provide support to leaf petioles, nonwoody stems, and growing organs. These cell types compose the cortex and pith tissues of the root and stems.

a component of wood. Therefore they are found in woody plants. . They have a thick secondary cell wall that contains a substance called lignin. Sclerenchyma cells are the main supporting cells of a plant.

(They are common components of xylem. There are two types of sclerenchyma cells: elongated fibers and variously shaped sclereids.) Sclereids may pack together very densely.   . Fibers often organize into bundles. (Sclereids are found in fruits such as pears and this give them their gritty texture.) They are often referred to as “stone cells”.

 . Both tracheary elements and tracheids undergo apoptosis(die) and do their jobs as empty cells (only the cell walls remain).  Tracheids are evolutionarily more ancient tracheary elements found in gymnosperms. It contains conducting cells called tracheary elements.Plant Cell Types Vascular (Transport) Xylem  The xylem conducts water from roots to above ground plant parts.

 .Tracheids and vessel elements: Water conducting cells  Vessel elements are the water “pipeline” system in flowering plants. Vessel elements are generally larger in diameter than tracheids and are laid down endto-end to form hollow tubes. also formed from dead cells. Flowering plants have both tracheids and vessel elements.

which transport carbohydrates and other materials.  . Cells of the phloem are arranged end-to-end and form long sieve tubes. unlike those of the xylem.  The characteristic cell of the phloem is the sieve tube member.Sieve-tube members: Food onducting Cells Phloem  Cells of the phloem are alive when they do their job.

 The plasmodesmata in sieve tube members enlarge as they mature. and other solutes). resulting in end walls that look like sieves. The sieve tube members have adjacent companion cells.    . Companion cells retain all their organelles and may regulate the performance of and support the sieve tube members. At functional maturity. sugars. a sieve tube is filled with sieve tube sap (water.

.Plant Tissues      A tissue is an organization of cells that work together as a functional unit. dermal. which is a simple tissue. they are composed of a number of different cell types. Xylem and phloem are complex tissues. Parenchyma cells make up parenchyma tissue. and ground. Tissues are grouped into tissue systems that extend throughout the body of the plant to form the various organs of the plant. There are three plant tissue systems: vascular.

Plant Tissues .

it is the conductive or “plumbing” system of the plant.THREE TISSUE SYSTEMS IN PLANT Vascular Tissue  The vascular tissue system includes the xylem and phloem. The phloem transports carbohydrates from sites of production (sources such as leaves) to sites of utilization for energy or where it is being stored (sinks) elsewhere in the plant.  .

Vascular Tissue The xylem distributes water and mineral ions taken up by the roots to the stem and leaves. .

The shoot epidermis secretes a layer of waxcovered cutin. which helps retard water loss from stems and leaves. which is a single layer or multiple layers of cells. All parts of the young plant body are covered by an epidermis. . the cuticle. The epidermis contains epidermal cells and other specialized cells such as guard cells.Dermal Tissue     The dermal tissue system is the outer covering of the plant.

and the production of defensive and attractant substances (oils and toxins). . photosynthesis. Ground tissue functions primarily in storage. support.Ground Tissue   The ground tissue system makes up the rest of a plant and consists primarily of parenchyma tissue.

The meristem gives rise to all plant cell and tissue types. . called meristems. The cells of meristematic tissues are analogous to the stems cells found in animals.    When a meristem cell divides. They have the ability to produce new cells indefinitely. one daughter cell develops into another meristem cell. The localized regions of cell division in plants. are forever embryonic. and the other differentiates into a more specialized cell.Meristems generate cells for new organs(Plant Stem Cells)  In plants the growth of roots and stems is indeterminate and is generated from specific regions of active cell division.

    Root apical meristems supply the cells that extend roots. The stems and roots of some plants form wood and become thick. Shoot apical meristems supply the cells that extend stems and branches. Lateral meristems give rise to the secondary plant   body. There are two types of meristems:  Apical meristems give rise to the primary plant body. Apical meristems are located at the tips of roots and stems and in buds. which leads to elongation and organ formation. which is the entire body of many plants. it is the lateral meristems that give rise to the tissues responsible for this thickening. Apical meristems are responsible for primary growth. .

Location of Meristematic Tissues .

Primary Growth of Root • Root Cap Thimble-like covering which protects the delicate apical meristem • Produced from cells derived from the root apical meristem • Secretes polysaccharide slime that lubricates the soil • Constantly sloughed off and replaced .

• Apical Meristem Region of rapid cell division of undifferentiated cells • Most cell division is directed away from the root cap • Quiescent Center Populations of cells in apical meristem which reproduce much more slowly than other meristematic cells • Resistant to radiation and chemical damage • Possibly a reserve which can be called into action if the apical meristem becomes damaged .

• The Zone of Cell Division .Primary Meristems Three areas just above the apical meristem that continue to divide for some time • Protoderm .innermost primary meristem produces cells which will become vascular tissue .outermost primary meristem produces cells which will become dermal tissue • Ground meristem central primary meristem produces cells which will become ground tissue • Procambium .

• The Zone of Elongation Cells elongate up to ten times their original length • This growth pushes the root further downward into the soil • The Zone of Maturation Region of the root where completely functional cells are found .

The leaf vein lamina midrib stalk .

the blade of the leaf • Stalk .The Leaf – Cross-section • Midrib .attaches the leaf to the stem midrib lamina vein .extension of the stalk into the leaf • Vein Branch-off from the midrib • Lamina .

Waxy Cuticle & Epidermis • • • • • • The waxy cuticle is a thin layer atop the epidermis. Their function is to prevent water getting out and stopping unwanted substances/organisms getting in. Its function is to reduce the water lost from the leaf. They form layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. cuticle epidermis . In arid conditions this cuticle layer can be quite thick. Epidermis cells contain no chloroplasts – not true of the stoma cells.

The palisade cells are closely packed together to maximize light absorption. • • • .Palisade Mesophyll Layer • The palisade mesophyll layer is where most of the photosynthesis occurs in the leaf. In the leaf cross-section we can see the palisade cells are only found in the upper part of the leaf. The palisade cells contain a lot of chloroplasts to help them perform this photosynthesis.

There are not as many chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll cells as there are in the palisade mesophyll cells – but photosynthesis still occurs in the spongy mesophyll layer.Spongy Mesophyll Layer • The cells in the spongy mesophyll layer are not as closely packed as the cells in the palisade mesophyll layer . • • This creates air spaces inside the leaf to enable gases to move in and out. .

called guard cells. It is through these stoma that water leaves the leaf. These cells.Stomata • • • • • • There are holes found in leaves called stoma These holes allows gases to diffuse in and out of the leaves The stoma are formed by two highly specialized epidermis cells. the process that powers transpiration. The stoma open and close depending upon the requirements of the plant. . are the only epidermis cells that contain chloroplasts.

• During photosynthesis carbon dioxide diffuses in and oxygen diffuses out • When the stomata are closed.often at night or in a humid environment. this stops gases diffusing in and out of the leaf Open stomata Close stomata .

FLOWERS • A flower is were the reproductive parts of the plant is held. The major parts are: -Stamen -Pistil -Ovary -Pollen/Sperm -Stigma -Filament -Eggs -Anther . Many parts are inside of a flower.

Flowers • Flower Parts • Pistil – Female part of plant – Containing: • Stigma • Style • Ovary .

• The pistil is the term for all the female parts of a flower. the female reproductive cells. Each pistil includes an ovary (where the eggs are produced. . a style (a tube on top of the ovary). and a stigma (which the pollen sticks to during fertilization).

• Stamen – Male reproductive part – Contains • Anther • Filament • The male parts of the flower help fertilize the egg of the flower. . • These parts are usually in a place that can be easily moved by insects and animals.

may contain perfume and/or nectar glands .• Sepals – Small green structures on the base of a flower that protect the flower bud • Petals – Highly colored part of the flower.

Parts of the Seed • Embryo – Growing part of seed containing: • Plumule – “Shoot” • Hypocotyl – Stem • Radicle – “Root” • Endosperm – Tissue that provides nutrition for the developing seed • Cotyledon – Food Storage • Seed Coat – Protective outer covering of the seed .

Parts of the Seed .

.• Testa -outer covering of the seed. protects the embryo • Hilum .the scar on the seedcoat. place where the seed was attached to the ovary • Endosperm-the food supply of the baby plant.