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AC Meters

Chapter 03

Objectives
At the end of this chapter, the student should

be able to:

Describe the operation of a half-wave rectifier circuit. Trace the current path in a full-wave bridge rectifier circuit. Calculate ac sensitivity and the value of multiplier resistors for half-wave and full-wave rectification.

Outline ntroduction: !hat is AC" d#Arsonval with $alf-wave %ectification d#Arsonval with &ull-wave %ectification
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Outline 'lectrodynamometer movement. (oading effects of AC )oltmeters *ummary

Introduction
*everal types of meter movements maybe used to measure AC current or voltage. The five principal meter movements used in ac instruments are listed in the table below:

Introduction
No 1 2 3 4 5 Meter Movement Electrodynamometer $ron-%ane Electro-static +(ermoco)ple D/Arsonval DC Use YE YE YE YE YE AC Use YE YE YE YE Applications tandard meter! "attmeter! etc# $ndicator applications! etc# &i'( volta'e meas)rement* ,adio -re. meas)rement

YE -01 %olta'e! c)rrents! recti-iers resistance! etc#


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Introduction
AC "ave-orms

dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


n the previous chapter, we have discussed in detail d#Arsonval ++ ,-++C. and its applications in Ammeter, )oltmeter and /hmmeters. 0ow, we#ll learn about using the same ++ to measure ac current or voltages.

dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


n order to measure ac with d#Arsonval ++, we must first rectify the ac current by use of a diode rectifier. This process will produce uni-directional current flow. *everal types of diode rectifiers are available: copper o1ide, vacuum diode, semiconductor diode etc.

dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


*till remember our DC )oltmeter, using d#Arsonval meter movement"
*ensitivity3 24
fs

&igure 2: The d#Arsonval meter movement used in a DC voltmeter


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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


-++C meter movements will not wor5 correctly if directly connected to alternating current, because the direction of needle movement will change with each half-cycle of the AC. -ermanent-magnet meter movements, li5e permanent-magnet motors, are devices whose motion depends on the polarity of the applied voltage.
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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification

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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


f we add a diode to a DC )oltmeter, then we have a meter circuit capable of measuring ac voltage.

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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


The &! biased diode will have no effects in the operations of the circuit. ,ideal diode. 0ow, suppose we replace the 26-)dc with 26)rms, what will happen"

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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


The voltage across the ++ is 7ust the positive 8 cycle of the sine wave because of rectifying action of the diode. The pea5 value of the ac sine wave is :

Ep= Erms X 1.414.


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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


The ++ will respond to the average value of the sine wave where the average, or DC value e9uals 6.:2; times the pea5 value. The average value of the AC sine wave is :

Eave= Ep/ =0.45x Erms


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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


The diode action produces an appro1imately half sine wave across the load resistor. The average value of this voltage is referred to as the DC voltage, which a DC voltmeter connected across a load resistor will respond to.
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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


Therefore, we can see that the pointer that deflected full scale when a 26-) DC signal was applied, deflects to only <.=) when we apply a 26-)rms sine AC waveforms. Thus, an AC )oltmeter using 8 wave rectification is only appro1imately <=> sensitive as a DC )oltmeter.

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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


n order to have a full scale deflection meter when a 26-)rms is applied, we have to design the meter with the %s having <=> of the %s of the DC voltmeter. *ince the e9uivalent DC voltage is <=> of the %+* value, we can write li5e this: Rs= (Edc/Idc)-Rm = (0.45Erms/Idc) -Rm
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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


'1ample 2
Compute the value of Rs for a 26-Vrms AC range on the voltmeter shown in &igure 2. ?iven that Ein3 26-Vrms, Ifs3 2mA, Rm3:66@.

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dArsonval MM with Wave Rectification


'1ample A
n the 8 wave rectifier shown below, D2 and DA have an average forward resistance of =6@ and are assumed to have an infinite resistance in reverse biased. Calculate the following: ,a. Rs value ,b) Sac ,c. Sdc ?iven that Ein 3 26-Vrms, Rs 3 A66@, Ifs 3 266mA, Rm 3 A66@

Ma6e it as yo)r e7ercise at (ome

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Conclusion
d#Arsonval ++ can be used to measure both DC and AC current4voltages.

The ++ will respond to the average value of sine wave where the average, or DC value e9ual to 6.:2; times the pea5 value. Sac = 0.45Sdc

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