   First described in the mid 70s. widely used in clinical laboratories in the 1960s and 1970s for automatic routine determination of a variety of species in blood and urine samples for medical diagnostic purposes. The method based on automatic analytical systems . Flow-injection methods are and outgrowth of segmented-flow procedures.

Their speed. which is frequently significantly greater than that of manual devices. .   Automated instruments offer a major economic advantage because of their savings in labor costs. A well-designed analyzer can usually produce more reproducible results over a long period of time than can an operator employing a manual instrument.


 Ordinarily. a device in which a fluid (liquid or gas) is squeezed through plastic tubing by rollers. the solution in a flow-injection analysis is moved through the system by a peristaltic pump. .

it is vital that the sample solution be infected rapidly as a pulse or plug of liquid . For successful analysis. The injectors and detectors employed in flow-injection analysis are similar in kind and performance requirements to those used in HPLC.

 Principle .

The assay protocol comprises the following steps : A) Sample injection is designed to meter an exact volume of analyte solution into a flowing stream of reagent. Since all standards and samples to be analyzed are individually processed in exactly the same way. the calibration curve is valid for samples to be assayed. by channel volume. B) As the sample zone (red) moves downstream. The extent of mixing and the length of reaction time is controlled by the flow rate. C) The reaction mixture flows through the detector yielding an analytical readout. D) The peak height recorded by the detector is proportional to the analyte concentration.The FI technique is based on injection of sample solution into a continuously moving carrier solution that transports the assayed species through the reactor and into the detector. the dispersion process mixes sample with reagent forming a reaction product (yellow). . and by channel geometry.


Profile of Signal Precision .Figure 2.

 Chromium can be in many different forms ranging from Cr0 to Cr6+ Most commonly found as Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in the environment  Chromium Speciation Important!  The characteristics and properties of trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium are greatly different. .

H2CrO4. HCrO4- Trivalent Chromium Cr(III) Cr(OH)2+. Cr2O72-. Cr(OH)2. Cr(OH)30 Less soluble Less mobile Less toxic Highly soluble Highly mobile Very toxic (known carcinogen) .Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI) CrO42-.

   Enrichment Factor (comparing signal produced with and without preconcentration) Concentration efficiency: expressed as the ratio of EF to the analysis frequency per minute/ time consumption for one signal Consumptive index : the volume of reagent required for one sequence of analysis: carriersample-carrier-eluen .