Cooling system

Cooling as a part of utility section is also playing important role to support main processes [refinery, chemical, power plant, etc] as a heat rejection equipment Selection of cooling type can be a hard task due to complex consideration before deciding which one is choosen. It is not only considering performance of cooling system itself but also the impact of the selection to the main process/plant performance as overall system The accurate estimation of the advantages of the available cooling system can be a lenghty and time consuming process, and will be difficult to justify for any but the largest plant. The engineer will have to make the choice in many cases without the benefit of such a study, so some general rule of thumb would be helpfull

Option available for cooling
The principal possibilities for plant process heat rejection are : [1] Direct contact cooling [2] Direct cooling in HE using sea, river or lake sources on a once through basis [3] Indirect cooling using secondary coolant, with sea, river or lake sources as the ultimate heat sink [4] Cooling water from an evaporative cooling tower [5] Cooling water from dry cooling tower [6] Cooling water from air cooled heat exchanger [7] Direct cooling in an air cooled heat exchanger [8] Cooling with refrigerant fluid (chilled fluid)

Direct contact cooling
This process is normally limited to condensation duties where there is a ready supply of suitable water which is not required to recover the condensate and when discharge of condensate mixture is allowed This approach, where appropriate, is likely to be one of the cheapest, as the equipment is little more than an empty shell and does not suffer badly from fouling when low quality water is used

use raw water on a “once through” basis For cases where there is a ready supply of raw water but direct contact between process fluid and cooling fluid is not allowed then this option offer the simplest and often cheapest solution. The hot water is discharged to same source area but at far different location to prevent mixing with cold raw water Main drawback of this option are : [1] Need large water debit [2] Need large chemical treatment for large debit [3] Thermal water pollution – enviromental restriction .

inDirect cooling with a secondary coolant This option can be selected where : [1] If the raw water is particulary corrosive [2] If it is important that the process cooling water be clean [3] If the risk of leakage of water into the process is unacceptable The secondary coolant maybe either treated water or other fluid when mixing leakage water with process fluid is not tolerated Main disadvantage : The secondary coolant has to be run at a temperature above that of raw water temperature .

Cooling water from an “evaporative” cooling tower This is most common form of cooling process except direct cooling with air through air cooled heat exchanger. . The tower can be natural or mechanical draft tower (either induced or forced draft by fan). An evaporative system requires a supply of make up water which maximum acceptable quality of which depends on the nature of the water treatment used.

Main drawback are : More expensive than evaporative CT as the low air heat transfer coefficient and approach is to the dry bulb rather than to lower wet bulb value Note : Very rare this option is in process plant although they have been used in many thermal power generation plant . There is saving of water.cooling water from a “dry” cooling tower This option replaces an evaporative cooling tower which the water is in closed tubes. there is no plume and make up water.

there may be an economic case for using this option [2] Low pressure gas tends to require a high ratio of pressure drop to absolute pressure when cooled or condensed in an ACHE.cooling water from an air cooled heat ecxchanger (ACHE) This may be chosen for various reason : [1] If direct air cooler has to be made of expensive material. which may be expensive in compressor power .

Direct cooling in air cooled heat exchanger (ACHE) Straight forward air cooling is the most common alternative to a evaporative cooling tower system. particulary when supplies of suitable water is not readily available or when there are severe enviromental restriction on discharge of cooling tower blowdown. .

cooling with refrigerant (chilled) fluid It is used to cool process fluid below ambient air or ambient water temperature .

chemical. power plant. the option of selecting which cooling type is will be forced to consider only between direct contact system by ACHE or by evaporative CT. water or ambient air would be selected for many specified cooling duties. etc. So. They are commonly applied at refinery.Choice of cooling fluid Except for cooling purpose using refrigerant or other special cases. There are some guidances during selection between water or ambient air :  Economic consideration  Process consideration  Layout consideration  Site consideration  Noise consideration  Altitude consideration .

Economic consideration (a) Should water be available near plant battery limit. in sufficient quantity to ensure the cooling of every part of the unit. then use it in preference to air cooling (b) If it will be necessary to use town’s main water or other highly treated water for CT make up water then choose air cooling .

084 kW/m2. water has more favourable properties than air : (a) Water has 4 times higher specific heat Cpw = 4.oC approximately 3450 times than ambient air 1.oC.oC that is 58 times higher than the one of air ha = 0. This implies that the surface of the condenser and the corresponding costs will be accordingly higher if air is used as cooling fluid rather than water . 3450 more volume of air has to be moved than in case of water resulting in the need for bulky expensive equipment for air handling plus higher electricity consumption for the air fans than the water pump (d) In condenser. water yields typical heat transfer coefficient hw = 4.00 kJ/kgoC (b) Water is 830 times more dense than air.oC than ambient air Cpa = 1.21 kJ/m3.process consideration In heat transfer term. cooling water at 15oC has density as much 999 kg/m3 than air density as much 1.oC.19 kJ/kg. This result in higher volumetric heat capacity and heat transfer coefficient (c) Water has volumetric heat capacity as much 4182 kJ/m3. This implies that in order to have same heat transfer effect. For example.2 kg/m3.84 kW/m2.

Other concern refer to TEMA standard . .is that approach temperature shall be optimised for HE but it shall not be smaller than :  3oC for kettle  5oC for TEMA shell and tube  10oC for ACHE  3oC for plate type HE These two different approach temperature will lead higher temperature of process fluid when using ACHE compared than evaporative CT. Only heat transfer path that occurs in ACHE rather than simultant mass and heat transfer inside evaporative CT.process consideration There is striking differences between cooling mechanism inside ACHE with evaporative CT. As the result : approach temperature of ACHE refers to ambient air dry bulb temperature that is higher than approach temperature of evaporative CT that refers to wet bulb temperature. This is the penalty when using air rather than water as cooling media.

Layout consideration ACHE is bulky and produce noise and warm air then their sitting should be considered at an early stage of plant design. .

site consideration Various site conditions may force the choice of air or water cooling : (a) Enviromental conditions may forbid the use of evaporative CT by imposing excessively stringent constraint on plumes or discharge of the blow down (b) If there is a shortage of suitable make up water then air cooling is forced to be a choice (c) An excessively stringent noise requirement may force water as cooling media (d) When as is the case in dry tropical climates and there is large difference between wet and dry bulb then water cooling would be especially favorable .

As ambient air temperature is usually lower a night. it may be possible to run the fans at lower speed during the night time. Community noise specification can be very difficult to meet.noise consideration Noise specification fall into 2 classes : (a) Limitation near the ACHE to protect operator’s hearing (b) Limitation at points remote from the plant to protect the amenity of neighboring communities Any reasonable hearing protection specification can be met at reasonable cost. Planning authorities sometimes impose a more stringent noise specification at night time than during daytime. using normal design and standard fan although hearing protection devices may have to be specified for personnel working in the vicinity unit. . A tight noise specification. coupled with the requirement fan rating can lead to a practically imposible task for ACHE designer. Great attention should be given to the alternate cooling method – evaporative CT.

.altitude consideration The performance of given ACHE will be less at higher altitude due to fall off in air density and hence volumetric heat capacity. for example at 1500 m the air density is approximately 85% of that at sea level for the same ambient temperature. evaporative CT thermal performance will increase at higher altitude due to higher ambient air saturation increasing driving force for mass transfer (evaporating). In other way.

Common cooling water problems Due to evaporative CT is open system that allows cold air to contact with hot water directly. so it has unique problem such as : (a) Scaling (b) Corrosion (c) Fouling .

Common mineral scale found in cooling water are : (a) Calcium carbonate (b) Calcium sulfate (c) Calcium phospate (d) Magnesium silicate (e) Iron oxide (f) Iron phospate. etc .scaling This problem occurs when specified ion concentration is exceeding its saturation concentration.

corrosion Corrosion is the mechanism by which metals are reverted back to their oxidized state Common form of corrosion found at cooling system are : (a) Crevice corrosion (b) Tuberculation (c) Underdeposite corrosion (d) Oxygen corrosion (e) Biologically influenced corrosion (f) Acid corrosion (g) Alkaline corrosion (h) Erosion corrosion (i) Galvanic corrosion (j) Graphitic corrosion .

e. etc . Mud and Iron (b) Dirt & Dust (c) Process contaminants. Oils (d) Corrosion Products (e) Microbio growth (f) Carryover (clarifier/lime softener). Sand.fouling It is phenomena that solid material accumulate then settle on HE surface. Common fouling found at cooling system are : (a) Silt.g.

piping. Step to step for optimum chemical CT treatment design : (a) Check parameter of make up water quality (b) Establish Cycle of Concentration [COC] (c) Check equipment material (HE. etc) (d) Check water range temperature (e) Also check cooling water velocity .Cooling water treatment Based on previous statements then cooling water must be treated so it can support process well.

That is why make water will act to keep constant recirculation cooling water flow and constant mineral concentration always below saturation concentration. mineral concentration become denser risk to exceed their saturation level that can create scale problem. Several parameter are considered during chemical CT treatment design : (1) Calcium hardness (2) Magnesium hardness (3) Total alkalinity (also know as “M” alkalinity) (4) Sulfate as SO4 (5) Silica as SiO2 (6) pH (7) Conductivity . As the water losses.Make up water quality Make up water should be added to system accommodating water losses as evaporation. drift and even leakage. blowdown.

EV.i = BD x CBD. EV = evaporation rate.i/CMU. BD then : MU = EV + BD Ion mass balance : MU x CMU. LK = leakage rate LK.Cycle of concentration Total water mass balance : MU = EV + BD + DR + LK MU = make up rate. DR = drift rate. BD = blow down rate.i COC = MU/BD = CBD. DR <<< MU.i COC x BD = EV + BD BD = EV/(COC – 1) (a) Decreasing COC lead higher water and chemical cost but lower scale risk (b) Increasing COC lead lower water and chemical saving but higher scale risk Note : Normal range of common CT COC is about 3~7 [maximum 10] After COC is determined – actually – kind of chemical CT treatment program that relates to quality of recirculation cooling water are stated too .

then the water must be not harmful to material . Some material currently installed may not capable to withstand corrosion attack. etc] material Material of piping.Equipments (piping. etc that cooling water flows inside also must be considered in chemical CT treatment program. he. HE.

8oC) due to scale risk will increase at this point (JR Backhurst. hot water inlet CT is set maximum 120 oF (48. JH Parker.Water range temperature Normally.”Process Plant Design”) .

water velocity is designed at range 1~3 m/s to prevent precipitation at lower velocity and even erosion at higher velocity .Water velocity Normally.

Chemical CT treatment program (a) Moly-Phosphonate (b) Alkaline Zinc (c) Stabilized Phosphate (d) Dispersants (e) All Organic (f) Antimicrobiologycal growth : Oxidizing Biocides (Chlorine and Bromine) or Non-Oxidizing Biocides .

000 ppm HTI 120 Hours max Temperature 135-180°F [57-82°C] Conductivity 2.000 micromhos max .Moly-Phosphonate program General Control Guidelines : Molybdate 6-16 ppm (as MoO4) Phosphonate 1-2 ppm (as PO4) Calcium 0-500 ppm M-Alkalinity 50 -2.

Alkaline Zinc program General Control Guidelines : Zinc (soluble) 0.5-2.5 ppm or 40% of total PO4 Calcium 15-1.0 ppm Ortho PO4 Extremely variable Insoluble PO4 1.000 micromhos max .000 ppm M-Alkalinity 50 -1.500 ppm HTI 120 Hours max Temperature 160°F [71°C] max Conductivity 6.

500 micromhos max .000 ppm pH 6.0 ppm insoluble max Calcium 15 -1.4 (Ca dependent) HTI 96 Hours max Temperature 150°F [66°C] max Conductivity 7.Stabilized Phosphate Program General Control Guidelines : Total O-PO4 8 -17 ppm (Ca dependent) 2.8-8.

Temperature 110-140°F [43-60°C] Conductivity 4.All organic Program General Control Guidelines : Calcium 80-900 ppm M-Alkalinity 300-500 ppm Temperature dependent pH 8.5-9.500 micromhos max .4 HTI 48 Hours max.

DBNPA. Amines or Glut/Quat Combo base (b) Interfere microorganism metabolism or destroy cell wall (c) Slug dose injection rather than continuous .ANTIMICROBIOLOGYCAL GROWTH Oxidizing Biocides : (a) Chlorine or Bromine base (b) Kill microorganism directly and fastly (c) Continuous injection (d) Must control residual strictly because residual is aggressive to some equipment material Non Oxidizing Biocides : (a) Isothiazoline. Quaternary. Glutaraldehyde.