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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
Applications of Electronic Devices
225

Andrew E. Milks PE
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Positive Feedback and Oscillators
• Phase Shift Oscillator
• Wien Bridge Oscillator
• Tuned Oscillator
• Crystal Oscillator
• 555 Timer
• Voltage Controlled Oscillator

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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Positive Feedback

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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Positive Feedback
• Causes the system to become unstable (oscillate)
and increase the size of the output

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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Phase Shift Oscillator
• Gain must be high enough to cause oscillation
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Phase Shift Oscillator
• Gain must be high enough to cause oscillation
• The RC components cause a total shift of 180 degrees
6 2
1
RC
f
t
=
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Phase Shift Oscillator
• Practical FET and BJT phase shift oscillators
6 2
1
RC
f
t
=
8 12/16/2013
Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Phase Shift Oscillator
• Practical FET and BJT phase shift oscillators
6 2
1
RC
f
t
=
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Wien Bridge Oscillator


• If and
2 2 1 1
2
1
C R C R
f
o
t
=
2 1 2 1
, C C R R = =
2
4
3
>
R
R
RC
f
o
t 2
1
=
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Wien Bridge Oscillator


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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• OP AMP Wien Bridge Oscillator


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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Tuned Oscillator
• Based on the resonant frequency


eq eq
o
C L
f
t 2
1
=
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Colpitts FET Tuned Oscillator
• Based on the resonant frequency
• C1 and C2 can be considered to be in series since no current
flows in to the gate


2 1
2 1
2
1
C C
C C
L
f
o
+
=
t
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Colpitts BJT Tuned Oscillator
• Based on the resonant frequency
• C1 and C2 are in series


2 1
2 1
2
1
C C
C C
L
f
o
+
=
t
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Colpitts Op Amp Tuned Oscillator
• Based on the resonant frequency
• C1 and C2 are in series


2 1
2 1
2
1
C C
C C
L
f
o
+
=
t
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Hartley Tuned Oscillator
• Based on the resonant frequency
• Similar to Colpitts except L1 and L2 are in series
• The combination is parallel with C
• M is the mutual inductance


C M L L C L
f
eq
o
) 2 ( 2
1
2
1
2 1
+ +
= =
t t
17 12/16/2013
Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Crystal Oscillator
• Applying voltage to a crystal causes oscillations
• Each crystal oscillates at 2 frequencies f1 when connected in
series f2 when connected in parallel which can be amplified in an
oscillator





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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Crystal Oscillator
• Series oscillator circuit (f1)





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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Crystal Oscillator
• Series square wave oscillator circuit (f1)





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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Crystal Oscillator
• Parallel oscillator circuit (f2)





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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Crystal Oscillator
• Miller parallel oscillator circuit (f2)





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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• IC Timers 555
• Modes of operation
• Astable – square wave oscillator
• Monostable – one shot pulse generator
• Both modes are based on capacitor charging and
discharging




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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• IC Timers 555
• Function blocks
• 2 comparators
• RS flip flop
• Capacitor
discharging BJT
switch




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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• IC Timers 555
• Astable Oscillator
• Output is on (high) when
capacitor is charging through 2
resistors
• Output is off (low) when
capacitor is discharging
through 1 resistor
• Note the duty cycle cannot be
50%



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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• IC Timers 555
• Astable Oscillator



C R T T
C R R T T
B low OFF
B A high ON
) ( 7 . 0
) ( 7 . 0
~ =
+ ~ =
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• IC Timers 555
• Mono stable – One Shot
• One output pulse for each time
the circuit is triggered



C R T T T
P high ON
) ( 1 . 1 ~ = =
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Voltage Controlled Oscillator
VCO 556
• The oscillator output frequency
depends on the input
modulation voltage
• Square and triangular wave outputs
available


|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
+
+
V
V V
C R
f
C
o
1 1
2
C
V
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Voltage Controlled
Oscillator VCO 556


|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
+
+
V
V V
C R
f
C
o
1 1
2
C
V
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Voltage Controlled
Oscillator VCO 556


Hz
V
V V
C R
f
C
o
8 . 31
2
1 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
+
+
C
V
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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Phase Locked Loop PLL 565
• Used in communication
circuits
• Square wave output
• Closed loop operation
• The output signal is
compared to a reference and
adjusted to get the same zero
crossing


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Chapter 23 Oscillator Circuits
• Phase Locked Loop PLL 565
• Used in communication
circuits
• Frequency Demodulation
FM
• Frequency Synthesis –
multiples of the fundamental
input locked in phase