Developments in Dyeing of Polyester

10th June 2006

Indian Institute of Technology

Main Components

1. Disperse Dye 2. Specialty Chemicals 3. Dyeing Procedures 4. Dyeing Machines

Disperse Dyes
1. Modification of Cellulose Acetate Dyes 2. Dyes Developed for Polyester 3. Rapid Dyeing Dyes – For On-tone Dyeing 4. Dyes for Automotive Fabrics > Light Fastness 5. Dyes for Sports Wear – High Wash Fastness

6. High Visibility Dyes – Fluorescent Dyes
7. Dyes for Other Specific Applications

Modification of Cellulose Acetate Dyes
C.I. Disperse Violet Low Gas 1 Fume Fading Fastness

C.I. Disperse Violet 27

Dyes Developed for Polyester
First Benzodifufuranone Dye

Dispersol PC Dye

Terasil WW polyester dyes incorporate benzodifuranone

Azobenzo - Thiophene Dye

Rapid Dyeing Dyes
Compatibility Dip Test – Du Pont- 1975 V- number – YCL – 1976 V = 70 – t1/2/10 Serilene V Dyes Compatible Trichromatic Dyes C.I. Disperse Yellow 54 C.I. Disperse Red 60 C.I. Disperse Blue 56

Mitsui’s V – number - 1977
V = 70/(Te – Ts)/H Miketon Polyester R-PEF Dyes

C.I. C.I. C.I. C.I.

Disperse Disperse Disperse Disperse

Orange 29 Red 60 Blue 56 Violet 33

Foron RD Dyes – Sandoz
Sumikaron E - RPD Dyes

Dianix AC-E Dyes – Mitsubishi Compact System – ICI C.I. Disperse Red 60 C.I. Disperse Blue 56 3-4 medium energy dyes

Rapid Dyeing Dyes

Dyes for Automotive Fabrics
AQ red and blue dyes having –OH group at position to the carbonyl group has the ability to undergo intra-molecular proton transfer followed by absorption in UV region. Through this internal conversion process the UV energy is dissipated

Disperse Red 60

Disperse Blue 27 Proton transfer leads to UV stabilization

Intra-molecular hydrogen bonding

Disperse Red 167:1

Disperse Yellow 86

Dyes for Sportswear
Benzodifufuranone Dye

Dyes with High Wash Fastness

Coralene XF

High Visibility Dyes


Some workers who may use high visibility clothing are: Traffic controllers Train shunters Crane chasers Track workers Road workers Coumarin Derivatives Dianix Luminous, Coralene Lumin. Ground crews Emergency service personnel

Dyes for Specific Applications
Dyes for Transfer Printing Dyes for Dyeing from Alkaline Bath

Dyes for SCFE Dyeing
Dyes for Solvent Dyeing Dyes for Ink Jet Printing Dyes for Dybln Process
Dybln Scarlet G

Dyes for Transfer Printing
Product Name Yellow 7GP Orange L2G Pink GP Red 2BP Red BB Turquoise Blue BP Blue BR Blue BL Blue RP
Ratio Crude 1:4 1:8

Blue 2RP
Black GLM

Alkali Stability of Disperse Dyes



C. I. Disperse Yellow 77

C. I. Disperse Yellow 58

Coralene AS, Dianix® AD

Dyes for Ink Jet Printing
Three ink requirements
1 -Image stability Resistant to light, water, sweat, and abrasion 2 -Safety Non-toxic, non-carcinogenic 3 -Storage life of years Dyes remain dispersed

Specialty Chemicals
1. Dispersing Agents 2. Leveling Agent 3. Colour Yield Improving Agent 4. Oligomer controlling Agent

5. Antifoaming Agent
6. pH Controlling Agent

Dispersing Agents
Lignin Sulphonates

Oligocondensate of Naphthalene Sulphonic acid

Micelles of Dispersing Agent

Micelle Assemblies of Anionic Dispersing Agents

Dye Dispersion
Dye Molecules

Anionic Dispersing Agent

Dye Molecules in Surfactant Micelles

Dye Aggregate

Dispersing Agents

Dialkyldimethylammonium bromide (DADMAB)

(Two alkyl chains)

Calix ([4]) risorcinarenes (Four alkyl chains)

Dispersing Agents
Gemini Surfactants
Gemini surfactants possess at least two hydrophobic chains and two ionic or polar groups
Propanediyl-α,ω-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium bromide)

Hexanediyl-α,ω-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium bromide

Surfactant Bilayers
30 A


Aggregation in water
Aqueous interior

Surfactant with two alkyl chains Aqueous exterior

Dyes Dissolved in Bilayer

Entrap dyes inside a vesicle

Deliver dyes to the Release dyes at the desired area target area
Dye Molecules

Dyeing Procedures
 Rapid Dyeing Processes
Suproma – Sandoz -1969  Resolin S – Bayer – 1970  Palegal Process – BASF – 1973  Desk – KP System – Nippon Kayaku – 1975  Mitsui’s MRD Process – 1977  Sodyeco & Comodye System – 1979  Compact System – ICI - 980  Palanil High Speed System –1983 Classical Optimisation Systems These systems were computerised Isothermal Dyeing System – Rapid Color Process Hoechst Blind Dyeing

Dyeing Procedures

1300C Diffusion and Migration Stage 600C 0 Sorption Stage 35-40 Cooling Stage 100-160

1300C 115-1300C 85-1000C 800C Hm Vc Diffusion Stage

600C Sorption Stage


Cooling Stage

Dyeing Time (min)





Software : Optidye P of DyeStar for Dianex CC dyes

Temporarily Solubilised Disperse Dyes
Temporarily solubilised disperse dyes derived from aminophenyl-4-(bsulphatoethylsulphone) are exhausted on the polyester fibre mostly in the vinylsulphone form and to a lesser extent as their hydroxyethylsulphone analogues.

No substantivity, Soluble

Substantive, Insoluble Reactive

Less substantive, Hydrolysed

Aftertreatment of polyester fabric dyed with temporarily solubilised disperse dyes, W J Lee and J P Kim, JSDC,116 (2000) 345

Dyeing Polyester with Microencapsulated Disperse Dyes

Polyurea microcapsules prepared by using disperse dyes as core material and diphenlmethane -4,4’ diisocyanate as wall material when dyed on polyester at high temperature completely exhaust in the absence of auxiliary chemicals such as dispersants etc. hence this method is considered as an eco-friendly method

Dyeing polyester with microencapsulated disperse dyes in the absences of auxiliaries, Zhong Yi, et al., Color. Technology, 121 (2005) 76

SCFE Dyeing
Supercritical carbon dioxide is an alternative dyeing technology that eliminates the use of water while achieving results comparable to current dyeing processes. Supercritical CO2 is harmless ecologically, available, non-toxic and nonexplosive. When placed above the critical point (31.1°C and 73 atm) CO2 becomes a remarkable solvent for many natural and synthetic dyes. The dye solution in the supercritical CO2 is carried to the fiber to be dyed. Under certain conditions, the gas-like diffusion of supercritical CO2 disperses the dye evenly into the small pores and crevices of the fiber.

Dyeing Conditions

Extraction vessel: 40 Liter
Fiber: 4 PET Packages Dye: C.1. Disperse Blue 79 Pressure: 4200 psi Temperature: 120ºC

CO2 Recirculation: 5 Kgs/min
Dye time: 40 minutes

Dyeing with Indigo

Insoluble Pigment

Alkaline Lecuo Vat (Soluble)

Vat Acid (Sparingly Soluble)

Hydrogen bonding

Hydrogen bonding

Solubilising effect

Swelling effect

Indigo adsorption properties to polyester fibers of different levels of fineness, Young-A. S et al., Dyes and Pigments 65 (2005) 137

Dyeing Machines

Dyeing Machines

Dyeing Machines


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