Physics 1251 The Science and Technology of Musical Sound

Unit 2

Session 12 MWF The Human Ear

Physics 1251

Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear

Foolscap Quiz:
A student guitarist plays a chord on his electric guitar. When he mutes the strings he notices that his acoustic guitar on the rack beside the amplifier is also ringing. What is the name of the relevant effect and what is happening? Resonance. The strings of the acoustic guitar were tuned to some frequency that he played. The strings picked up the energy from the vibrations of the air that were “in resonance.”

Physics 1251

Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) 9 th Symphony (Choral)
Composed when he was profoundly deaf.

• where the vibrations are further transformed by stereocilia (hair cells) • into neural impulses distributed by frequency.Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear 1′ Lecture: The human ear is a highly sensitive sound receptor in which • pressure fluctuations in the outer ear are transformed • into vibrations of small bones (the ossicles) in the middle ear • that are ultimately communicated to the cochlea located in the inner ear. .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Anatomy of Ear Middle Ear Outer Ear Inner Ear .

3. Meatus – ( the passageway) conducts sound into head. 2. . Pinna – (the feather) matches ear canal to outside world. Tympanium – (the drum) transforms pressure fluctuations into displacement.Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Anatomy of the Ear • 80/20Outer Ear: 1.

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Outer Ear • Pinna ——→ • Meatus ———→ ←— Tympanium .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Anatomy of Ear Middle Ear .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Anatomy of the Ear • 80/20Middle Ear: The Ossicles (little bones) 1. Incus ― (the anvil) supported by ligaments that protect against loud percussion.3 because of lever action. Stapes ― (the stirrup) force multiplied by 1. 2. 3. Malleus ― (the hammer) moved by Tympanium. .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Tympanic Membrane (Ear Drum) micrograph (view from inside) ←————— Tympamium ←——— Malleus and ligaments .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear The Ossicles Malleus ——→ ←—— Incus ←—— Stapes .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Ossicles (Micrographs) Malleus Incus Malleus Incus Tympanium Stapes Stapes .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Anatomy of Ear Inner Ear .

Auditory Nerve – neural impulses to brain Semicircular canals – detect motion and orientation .Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Anatomy of the Ear • 80/20Inner Ear: Cochlea – (the Snail) converts displacement into neural impulses.

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Anatomy of Inner Ear ←—— Semicircular Canals Oval Window Round Window ←—— Cochlea .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Cochlea (micrograph) “The Snail” • • o~ oval window r~ round window 2 mm .

Out on bottom 5. Spiral cone 2.Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Structure of Cochlea 1. “Sloshing “ . In on top half 4. Divided by Basilar Membrane 3.

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Anatomy of Cochlea Micrograph Section Basilar ——————→ Membrane © Kansas State School of Medicine .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Microstructure of Cochlea Basilar ——————→ ↑ Membrane Organ of ↑ Auditory Nerve → → Corti .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Stereocilia (Hair Cells) .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Outer Hair Cell in Cross Section .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Inner Hair Cells Synapse ⇘ Afferent Efferent .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Organ of Corti and Basilar Membrane Vibration ←——— Outer Hair Cells ←————— Inner Hair Cells .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Detail of Hair Cell Stereocilia .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Action of Hair Cell Vibration )))) Neurotransmitter released Nerve Hair Cell Depolarizes Hair Cell .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Function of Stereocilia Stimulation in HC Causes neurotransmitter to stimulate neuron in Auditory Nerve .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Frequency Response of Hair Cells .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Frequency Discrimination in Cochlea • 20 Hz to 20 kHz (typical in Humans) • Resonances in Basilar membrane and in HC cause spatial separation by frequency. . Differential movement of membranes stimulate HC. Inhibition of neighbors causes non-linear response. • • Minimum stimulation required for response.

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Neuronal Decoding of Sound (Schematic) Low Frequency High Frequency Frequency response localized in Cochlea .

Intensity → How many? The number of HC that are stimulated by the sound determines the perceived loudness. .Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Neuronal Response to Sound • Frequency → Where? The location • where in the Cochlea the stereocilia are stimulated.

If you have experienced temporary hearing loss due to loud sounds you have had a warning. Stereocilia do regenerate daily.Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear 80/20Repeated acoustic trauma can cause permanent and profound hearing loss or deafness. .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Hearing Loss due to Over Stimulation causes Excitotoxicity Too much Ca2+ poisons the neuron. .

not exposed After Exposure .Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Extreme Acoustic Trauma Guinea Pig Stereocilia damage (120 dB sound) Control.

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear How do you protect yourself? Ear Plugs Wear Them! .

Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear How does Anatomy affect perception? • • • • Frequency response Loudness perception Phase insensitivity Deafness • Disruption of “acoustic chain. • Remedies • Restore chain or increase amplitude .” • Nerve death.

Inner – converts displacement to neural impulses.Physics 1251 Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Summary: Anatomy : Outer. Middle and Inner Ear. sorted by frequency. Middle – amplifies displacement. . Function: Outer – converts pressure fluctuations to displacement. protects against loud noise.

• • . • • No phase detection mechanism. Large “non-linear” range of 12 orders of magnitude in intensity Three (3) orders of magnitude in frequency (20 Hz to 20 kHz).Physics 1251 • Unit 2 Session 12 The Human Ear Physiology determines function. Trauma (due to loud sounds) is a cause of deafness.