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interfered and absorbed. scattered and diffracted. These effects will be used throughout our study of wave propagation: . they may be reflected and refracted. While sound waves spread out in all directions from the source.

1.A sound wave that is reflected back toward the source is known as what type of sound? .

In both cases. For this reason. . and only a portion of the reflected sound returns to the listener. Similarly. an echo is never as loud as the original sound. Just as a rubber ball bounces back when it is thrown against a hard surface. a rubber ball never bounces back with as much energy as the initial bounce.&Echo • An ECHO is the reflection of the original sound wave as it bounces off a distant surface. As we have learned from the study of the law of conservation of energy. Only a portion of the original sound is reflected. sound waves also bounce off most surfaces. a reflected sound wave is not as loud as the original sound wave. some of the energy is absorbed by the reflecting surface.

2.How to explain the velocity change in this figure ? .

Refraction occurs gradually when one part of a sound wave is traveling faster than the other parts. The velocity of the wind is added to the velocity of the sound through the air. the waves are refracted. .&Refraction • When sound waves traveling at different velocities pass obliquely (at an angle) from one medium into another. The result is that the upper portion of the sound wave moves faster than the lower portion and causes a gradual change in the direction of travel of the wave. that is. Refraction causes sound to travel farther with the wind than against it. the wind a few feet above the surface of the earth has a greater velocity than that near the surface because friction retards the lower layers (see figure above). For example. their line of travel is bent.

What is the term for multiple reflections of sound waves? .3.

sound may be reflected several times to cause what is known as reverberation. the discharge of lightning causes a sharp. For instance. A similar case often arises with underwater sound equipment. REVERBERATION is the multiple reflections of sound waves. By the time this sound has reached the ears of a distant observer. . Reverberations from nearby points may continue for such a long time that they interfere with the returning echoes from targets.&Reverberation • In empty rooms or other confined spaces. it is usually drawn out into a prolonged roar by reverberations that we call thunder. quick sound. Examples of this often occur in nature. Reverberations seem to prolong the time during which a sound is heard.

What does a disturbance called in our acoustic? .4.

. This addition or subtraction of waves is often called interference. the waves cancel each other. that causes an undesirable response or the degradation of a wave is referred to as INTERFERENCE.and are moving in the same direction. they are subtractive and are said to interfere destructively. If the two waves have the same frequency and are moving in the same direction. • Two sound waves moving simultaneously through the same medium will advance independently. man-made or natural.in phase with each other . If the two waves have the same frequency . but out of phase with each other. each producing a disturbance as if the other were not present. If these two subtractive waves have equal amplitudes.&Interference • Any disturbance. they are additive and are said to interfere constructively.

5.A cavity that vibrates at its natural frequency produces a louder sound than at other frequencies. What term is used to describe this phenomenon? .

the tone produced seemed much louder than the others. • This phenomenon occurs whenever the frequency of vibrations is the same as the natural frequency of a cavity. The reason for this phenomenon is that at that a certain pitch the frequency of vibrations of the voice matched the resonant (or natural) frequency of the cavity. When the resonant frequency of the cavity was reached. and is called RESONANCE. resulting in a louder tone. the sound of the voice was reinforced by the sound waves created by the cavity. .&Resonance • At some time during our life we probably observed someone putting his or her head into an empty barrel or other cavity and making noises varying in pitch. When that person's voice reached a certain pitch. The resonant frequency of a cavity is the frequency at which the cavity body will begin to vibrate and create sound waves.

ELASTICITY AND DENSITY AND VELOCITY OF TRANSMISSION • Sound waves travel through any medium to a velocity that is controlled by the medium. Varying the frequency and intensity of the sound waves will not affect the speed of propagation. The ELASTICITY and DENSITY of a medium are the two basic physical properties that govern the velocity of sound through the medium. .

as from a vibration or compression. The measure of elasticity of a body is the force it exerts to return to its original shape. .• Elasticity is the ability of a strained body to recover its shape after deformation.

. Raising the temperature of the medium (which decreases its density) has the effect of increasing the velocity of sound through the medium.• The density of a medium or substance is the mass per unit volume of the medium or substance.

.The velocity of sound in an elastic medium is expressed by the formula: • Even though solids such as steel and glass are far more dense than air. a denser material (such as lead) passes sound slower. that is. Using elasticity as a rough indication of the speed of sound in a given medium. slower in liquids. Density has the opposite effect on the velocity of sound. with other factors constant. their elasticities are so much greater that the velocities of sound in them are 15 times greater than the velocity of sound in air. we can state as a general rule that sound travels faster in harder materials (such as steel). and slowest in gases.

Thus the velocity that sound will travel through air at 32℉ (0℃) is 1. .100 feet per second. But for practical purposes. • How does density and temperature affect the velocity of sound?  Velocity increases as density decreases and temperature increases.087 feet per second. the speed of sound in air may be considered as 1.• At a given temperature and atmospheric pressure. all sound waves travel in air at the same speed.

410 16. MEDIUM AIR AIR ALUMINUM CARBON DIOXIDE FRESH WATER FRESH WATER HYDROGEN TEMPERATURE (℉|℃) VELOCITY 32 68 68 32 32 68 32 0 20 20 0 0 20 0 1.The table below gives a comparison of the velocity of sound in various mediums.800 4.629 4.087 1.127 16.805 4.850 .219 LEAD SALT WATER SALTE WATER STEEL STEEL 32 32 68 32 68 0 0 20 0 20 4.030 4.953 16.700 8.56 4.

That’s all Thank you! .