THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION
• Administer-Latin word • “ad+ministraire” – to care for or to look after people-to manage affairs. • Administraire – “serve”

ADMINISTRATION

ORGANIZATION

MANAGEMENT

co-ordination and control of many persons to achieve purposes or objectives. -pfiffner&presthus • it is the direction.ADMINISTRATION DEFINITION: • It is the organisation and direction of human and material resources to achieve desired ends. -LD White .

with the accomplishment of defined objectives -Luther gullick • It is the activities of groups co-operating to accomplish common goals -Herbert .cont’d • It has to do with getting things done.

NATURE OF ADMINISTRATION         It is universal It is holistic It is intangible It is continuous & on going process It is goal oriented It is social& human It is dynamic It is creative & innovative .

organising.actuating.activating &controlling.Joseph  It is the distinct process consisting of planning. performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources George  It is the process and agency which directs &guides the operations of an organisation in realizing established aims -O Tead .MANAGEMENT DEFINITION:  The process by which a co-operative group directs action towards common goals .

cont’d…
 The art of getting things done through people.  Working with and through individual and groups to accomplish organizational goals -parker follet

DEFINITION OF NURSING MANAGEMENT

The co-ordination and integration of nursing resources by applying the management process to accomplish nursing care and service goals and objectives

concept of management

early management approaches

modern management approaches

SCIENTIFIC

ADMINIS TRATIVE

HUMAN RELATION

BEHAVOURAL

SYSTEM

CONTINGENCY

ADMINISTRATION & MANAGEMENT COST EFFECTIVENESS FLEXIBILITY IN CERTAIN SITUATION EXECUTION & CONTROL OF WORK PLANS PHILOSOPHY DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY & AUTHORITY HUMAN RELATIONS & GOOD MORALE EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION .

PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION ONENESS SPECIALISM & THE WHOLE SELFADMINISTRATION HIERARCHY AND REGIMENTATION MORALE BUREAUCRACY .

organising --.staffing --.FUNCTIONS OF ADMINISTRATION • POSDCORB –LUTHER GULLICK P o s d  co r b --.directing --.budgeting .co-ordinating --.planning --.reporting --.

Establishment of the formal structure of authority through which work subdivisions are arranged.Contd… PlanningWorking out the things that need to be done & the methods for doing them to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise. Organizing. designed & co-ordinate for the defined objective. .

Continuous task of making decisions & embodying them in specific & general orders & instructions.The whole personnel function of bringing in & training the staff.& serving as the leader of the enterprise. Directing.Contd… Staffing .& maintaining favourable conditions of work. CoOrdinating-All important duties of interrelating the various parts of the work. .

research & inspection Budgeting -All that goes with budgeting in the form of fiscal planning. accounting & control . which includes keeping himself & his subordinates informed through records.Contd… Reporting -Keeping the executive informed as to what is going on.

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT Division of work Authority Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination of individual interest to general interest Remuneration .

Contd… Centralisation or decentralisation Scalar chain Order Equity Stability&Tenure Initiative Esprit de corps .

THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS PLANNING ORGANIZING CONTROLLING STAFFING DIRECTING .

CO-ORDINATION It is the integration. departments or units the activities in all areas are required to be pulled together. to ensure harmonious & smooth working of an organization with a number of its divisions. synchronization or orderly pattern of group efforts in the institution/organization towards the accomplishment of common objectives. unified & blended so as to give them a commonners & purposes. .

DEFINITION OF CO-ORDINATION • It is the orderly synchronization or orderly pattern of group efforts to provide the proper amount.& directing of execution resulting in harmonious & unified actions to a stated objectives. timing. -Terry . • IT is the adjustment of the parts of each other & of the movement & operation of party in times so that each can make in maximum contribution to the product of the whole.

-Brech .& seeing that these are performed with due harmony among the members them selves.Contd… • It is the balancing & keeping the team together by ensuring a suitable allocation of working activities to the various members.

NEED FOR CO-ORDINATION Diverse & specialised activities Empire building Personal rivalries & prejudice Conflict of interest .

IMPORTANCE OF CO-ORDINATION • • • • Quintessence of management Creative force Unity of direction High employee morale .

co-ordination Endeavour must start at the planning stage . There is need for importance of direct personal contact in removing misunderstanding & conflict between departments. b. As the thinking function of management proceeds the doing function. otherwise it becomes impossible to secure co-ordination of activities & efforts in the execution of work. .PRINCIPLES OF CO-ORDINATION a.

d. Co-ordination is a continual activity that permeates through each managerial function. actions & interests towards common purpose. .Contd… c. There should be an integration of all efforts.

.

TYPES TYPES OFOF CO-ORDINATION CO-ORDINATION INTERNAL •PLANNING •ORGANIZING •DIRECTION •CONTROL EXTERNAL •3 INTERESTING PARTIES •OTHER ENTERPRISES •GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION •TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES .

experience wisdom & character among leaders & their confused &conflicting ideas & objectives. as to the behaviour of the individuals & of people.HINDRANCES OF CO-ORDINATION • The uncertainty of the future. personalities & political factors . • The lack of administration skill & technique. • Size & complexity. • The lack of knowledge.

• The vast number of variables involved & the incompleteness of human knowledge. particularly with regard to men & life. perfecting & adopting new ideas & programmes. considering. Contd… . • The lack of leaders with wisdom & knowledge pertaining to public administration. • The lack of orderly methods developing. • The accelerated expansion of public administration of international dimension.

THEORIES OF ADMINISTRATION& MANAGEMENT • • • • • • • • Frederic Winslow Taylor(1857-1915)-Scientific management Henri Fayol(1841-1925)-Management functions Luther Gullick-Activities of management Lynda Urwick Max Weber(1864-1920)-Bureaucratic organisations Mary Follett(1869-1933)-Partcipative management Elton Mayo(1927-1933)-Hawthorne effect Kurt Lewin .

Contd… • • • • • • • • Abraham Maslow -Human Motivation Douglas McGregor-theory x &theory Y Chris Argyris-Employee Participation Renesis Likert Herbert Simon Chester Barnard Henry Mintzberg W.Ouchi-theory Z .

FREDERIC WINSLOW TAYLOR A mechanical engineer. “BEST MANAGEMENT IS A TRUE SCIENCE” . Educated in a steel company &a paper mill invented several industrial tools. Born in pennsylvania. Conducted research on methods of training workers for increased production.

close collaboration & deliberate co-operation between the employers & employees. .ascertained through observation & experimentation. coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee. employees & consumers.  His philosophy of Scientific management is no inherent conflict in the interest of employers.  It is a systematized & critically tested body of knowledge.Contd…  “SCIENCE”-a body of knowledge.  It was the result of higher productivity should equally benefit all people.  Objective of management is To secure the maximum prosperity for the employer.  He advocated in the interest of societal prosperity.

.Contd… 4 basic principles of Scientific management The development of true science The scientific selection of employees  The scientific education & development of employees Intimate &friendly co-operation between employees & employers.

Contd… Scientific management requires a mental revolution by both managers & workers. . towards their work. & towards all of their daily problems to achieve the objectives. regarding their duties. towards their follow workers.

         Taylor specifies 9 qualities of which will make a good foreman / workman Education Special technical knowledge Manual dexterity& strength Tact Energy Spirit Honesty Judgement & Good health .

4. . 3. 2. Taylor’s system for work improvement consists Observing the workers performance through time & motion study Scientifically selecting the best worker to perform each job Training the selected worker Paying the worker a differential piece rate Appointing a few highly skilled worker to managerial positions Appointing foreman for each aspect of the work & instructing the production worker to report to a different functional foreman for each aspect of the job. 6. 5.1.

 He divided all activities in an organization into 6 groups-technical.financial. . accounting &administrative.security. commercial.Henri Fayol-Management functions  Born in France  Educated as an engineer at the National school of Mines & employed as mining engineer & then as GM of a coal & steel company.

falling into 2 main groups-process & effect Contd… .Fayol broke down the key function of administration into 5 main aspects.  To plan  To organise  To command  To co-ordinate &  To control these aspects of administration.

PROCESS
• FORECASTING • ORGANISATION • COMMAND

EFFECTS
• PLAN • CO-ORDINATION • CONTROL

PRINCIPLES
INVESTIGATION

PROCESS
FORE CASTING

OBJECTIVE

FFECT

REALITY

ORGANISATION

PLAN

COORDINATION & CONTROL

ORDER

COMMAND

FAYOL’S 14 PRINCIPLES OFADMINISTRATION

Division of work Authority Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination of individual interest to general interest Remuneration

Contd… Centralization or decentralization Scalar chain Order Equity Stability &Tenure Initiative Esprit de corps .

planning  O --.LUTHER GULICK • POSDCORB  P --.directing  CO --.staffing  D --.co-ordinating  R --.reporting  B --.organising  S --.budgeting .

PRINCIPLES OFADMINISTRATION • • • • • • • • • • Division of work or specialization Bases of departmental organisation Co-ordination through hierarchy Deliberate Co-ordination Co-ordination through committees Decentralization Unity of command Staff & line Delegation & Span of control .

4Ps of Gulick The Purposes they serve (function) The process they use The persons or things which they deal with (clientele) The place where they work .

wasteful.LYNDA URWICK Classical theorist More importance to the structure of organisation than the role of the people in the organisation (design) He further considered lack of design as ‘illogical. & inefficient. cruel. .

4. 2.PRINCIPLES OFADMINISTRATION 1.Urwick. 5. 3. 8. 7. 6. The “principal of objective” The “principal of correspondence” The “principal of responsibility” The “scalar principal” The “principal of span of control” The “principal of specialisation” The “principal of co-ordination” The “principal of definition” .

&economics as a private scholar.MAX WEBER-BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS • German intellectual with no managerial experience. . sociology. taught law at the university of Berlin & Economics of Frieberg university. • Studied at the university of Heidelberg. • Studied Politics.

deputed work procedures.Contd… Bureaucracy as having a welldefined hierarchy of authority. impersonal interpersonal relationships & promotion based on technical competence. . division of work based on specialisation.highly specific rules governing worker’s duties & rights.

is seen as too rigid & ponderous to respond to today’s rapid societal change.highly efficient in dealing with changing circumstances. .Contd… • It was superior to other forms of organisation • It provides greater stability. precision & reliability in controlling employees . • Bureaucracy.

.MARY FOLLETT-PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT o An American who studied government & business administration at Radcliffe and abroad. o Management as a social process aimed at motivating individuals & groups to work towards a common goal. o Manager should never give orders to an employee. instead Manager & employee should analyse the situation together. o She advised managers on avoid arbitrary authority.& both should take orders from the situation.

• To test Several assumptions of scientific management. . • Purpose – to determine relationship between intensity of illuminations & workers productivity • Result – when research increased the level of illumination of the experimental group – work output increased.Elton Mayo-Hawthorne effect • Mayo & fritz Roethlisberger conducted studies at Chicago's Hawthorne western electric plant.

Contd… • When illumination was decreased. • Conclusion – an unidentified psychological factor had influenced work output. which are not regulated by legal norms. output continue to increase. human relation refers to relations between workers & employer. These relations are concerned with moral & psychological factors rather than legal factors .

work group structure & socio. The process of behaviour changes occurs in 3 phases: .the job behaviour is influenced by interactions between worker’s personality.KURT LEWIN A social psychologist. Field theory of human behaviour(1951).technical climate of the work place. He claimed that a worker’s on.

BEHAVIOUR CHANGE UNFREEZING CHANGING REFREEZING .

Abraham Maslow -Human Motivation SELF ACTUALISATION SELF ESTEEM SOCIAL NEEDS SECURITY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS .

Douglas McGregor-theory x &theory Y • A behavioural scientist. • His focus is on utilizing human potentials in organisations & getting the best out of people by creating a conducive & harmonious environment. • A strong believe in the potentialities of human beings in contributing organizational performance. .

The average human being has an inherent dislike of work & will avoid it. controlled. Because of dislike of a work. threatened with punishment to get through. directed. put forth adequate effort towards the achievement of organizational objectives . most people must be coaxed.Contd… Trational managers in a bureaucracy operates on a set of assumptions about human nature & human behaviour – “THEORY X” a. b.

capable of being deceived easily etc. . wishes to avoid responsibility. The average human being prefers to be directed.Contd… c. lacking in ambition. has rationally little ambition & is more interested in financial increments & wants security above all than personal achievements. resisting change. Theory X assumes human beings as lazy.non-creative.

 Hard strategy . . meets the demands & attempts to harmonize the demands of the organizations & that of employees. tight centre.close supervision.Contd… Management has 2 strategies-hard & soft. lays stress on efficiency & economy by putting direction & control. coercion & threat.  Soft strategy – more permissible. Theory X represents classical administrative theory.

b. a. People will exercise self-control & self – direction when pursuing goals to which they are personally committed. .Contd… Theory Y provide a more accurate assessment of human nature. one that encourages worker’s to develop their full potential. External control & threat of punishment are not only means of bringing about efforts towards organizational objectives. The average individual does not inherently dislike work.

.ingenity & creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely not narrowly. Under the conditions of modern industrial life. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination.Contd… c. The average human being learns. e. distributed in the population. Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. under proper conditions. f. the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized. d. not only to accept but ti seek responsibility.

it involves lot of leadership skills on the part of the manager to achieve these objectives. . It emphasize on developing & improving performance orientation of the people working in the organisation.direction goal orientation & human values in the organisation.Contd… The theory “Y” underlines the importance of maintaining an organisation where people feel confident & motivated. self. is self. the corner stone of McGregor framework.restraint.

the individual moves to a condition of greater independence. more achievements. longer time perspective & increased self-control.CHRIS ARGYRIS-EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION During maturation. encouraging employees to become passive & dependent & decreasing their job satisfaction & emotional health . Argyris claimed that the rigid structure & stringent rules of a bureaucracy block normal maturation. musts & activities.

RENESIS LIKERT Likert advocated “ SYSTEM 4” approach to organisational development in which organisational structure facilitates continuous interaction among various groups in the organisation. so work is controlled through mutual influence by employees. .

decisions are made at all levels. . training is provided to upgrade personnel & control mechanism stimulates workers to solve their own problems. information flows freely throughout the organisation.employees participate in setting high but achieve goals.Contd… A”SYSTEM 4” organisation is one in which superiors & subordinates trust each other in all matters.

. The decision making process involves 3 phases of activities.  He analyzed the human behaviour in terms of its preference in decision making process.HERBERT SIMON  A decision theorist.  Business &service institutions are networks decision makers.

DESIGN ACTIVITY 3.3 PHASES OF DECISION MAKING PROCESS 1. INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITY 2. CHOICE ACTIVITY .

for which executive has to analyses the organisational environment & identify the conditions that need decision. He likes the alternative strategies for problem solving.INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITY It involves finding. access to taking decision. .

. determining likely consequences of each alternative.DESIGN ACTIVITY It involves development of alternatives to do a particular job. here also the executive identifies the merits & demerits as well as problem involved in each of the alternatives.

CHOICE ACTIVITY Decision maker should choose or select one of the alternative or course of action . here the executive evaluates consequences & select the course of actions.keeping in view the organisational goals. .

Contd… Herbert contrasts 2 approaches to decision. the approach applied by so called “ECONOMIC MAN” & satisfying the method used by so called “ADMINISTRATIVE MAN” .making. optimising.

 It composes of elements under one related & dependent upon one another but that where in interaction form a unity whole.CHESTER BARNARD  Organisation as a social system. .  A system is defined as a set of arrangements of things so related or connected as to form a unity or organic whole.

Gives risk to formal Organisation.Contd…  Organisation as a co-operative systems. . He defines Organisation as a system of consciously co-ordinated personal activities or forces.

.Contd… The organisation came into existence when:  There are persons able to communicate with each other  Who are willing to contribute action  To accomplish a common purpose the elements of organisation are communication. willingness & common purpose.

Contd… the process of co-operation in an organisation requires the following to make it effective. 2. 4. . 5. The place where work is done The time which work is done The person with whom work is done The things upon which work is done The method or process by which work is done 1. 3.

• Authority as “the character of communication (order) in a formal organisation by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor or member of the organisation as governing the action he contributes”. .Contd… • Barnard also laid emphasis on the ACCEPTANCE OF AUTHORITY by others in the organisation.

HENRY MINTZBERG He asserts that managerial activities are more reactive than productive & are characterized by brevity. variety & discontinuity. Mintzberg reports that the topical manger or administrator patrons 10 roles. .

ROLES OF MANAGER INTERPERSONAL •FIGURE HEAD •LEADER •LIASION INFORMATIONAL •MONITOR •DISSEMINATOR •SPOKESMAN DECISIONAL •ENTERPRENEUR •HANDLER •RESOURCE ALLOCATOR •NEGOTIATOR .

OUCHI-”THEORY Z” Life long employment on the same firm Infrequent evaluation & promotions Non-specialised carpet path development Implicit control of worker behaviour Collective decision making Group responsibility for quality & Holistic concern for the employees welfare. .W.

slow promotion based on non. group decision making based on both qualitative & quantitative data. a combination of specialised & generalised training.decentralised control of performance quality & concern for both employee & agency welfare is required .Contd… Theory “Z” calls for long term employment. For carrier development.threatening peer evaluation.

Contd… • The principles of group decision making & decentralised control of quality & implemented through quality circles. • In a quality circles the managers & members of the primary work group meet for an hour each week to solve work problems & improve work processes & outcomes. .

single application of rules & procedures will not improve productivity & quality.  If employee do not understand the fundamental institutional purposes. .Contd… Yoshida –Japanese management principles  To improve service delivery. each employee must start with a clear conception of what the most desirable service could include.  A manager can eliminate the need for continuous inspection by building quality into the process or product in the first place.

.  Replacement of an unsatisfactory worker with a more satisfactory worker causes insecurity for remaining worker.  Too close linking of responsibility to authority produces feeling of sectionalism & decreases loyalty to the organisation as a whole. requires that one perceives the total organisation as a complex that is composed of separate & replaceable parts.Contd…  The notion of replacing unsatisfactory worker with a more satisfactory worker.

CURRENT ISSUES AND TRENDS  Management of populations with chronic illnesses  Resources to acquire technology on an ongoing basis  The need for primary & preventive services & programs. including complementary and alternative programs  Integration & seamlessness of clinical & financial services 7 information  Protection of consumers’ privacy .

Contd…  Shortages of key personnel. especially registered nurses  Financing structures such as capitation & managed care  Care delivery & process management  Management of knowledge workers & personal accountability  Pressures for quality & sustainable outcomes  Leadership skills related to change management .

 No specific power has been assigned to nursing superintendents.involvement of nursing administrators in planning & decision. but he/she has been made in-charge of all inventories & linen of hospital.  Nursing superintendents will have no authorities to sanction leave to their subordinates.Contd…  Non. .making in the governmental hospital administration.

 Unnecessary interference of non nursing personnel in nursing administration. Contd… .  Prevalence of role ambiguity. Lack of knowledge in management of hospital among nursing/medical administrators. always dependent on the advice of clerical staff in all matters including technical aspects. among administration & administrators.  Administrator.

 Inefficiency of nursing councils of state & union to maintain standards in nursing.Contd…  No written nursing policies & manuals.  No proper job description for various nursing cadres.  No efforts at higher level for implementation of separate directorate of nursing. .  No special incentives.  No organised staff development programme.

nurses have valuable related skills of coordination and integration.CONCLUSION A manager’s job is to coordinate and integrate resources. all nurses are managers. they coordinate and deliver health services to clients .