Semester 1, Session 2013/2014


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• Surveying was traditionally a science of determining the relative positions of points above, on or beneath the surface of the earth (both land and sea) through collection and analysis of data.

• During the Industrial Revolution in the 1800s, more people began to question the exact property boundaries and with the increasing demand for public infrastructures like railroads, roads and bridges, surveying became in demand.

• A surveyor uses the science of measurement to collect and analyse land and geographic data.

• Surveyor’s analysis, important to building, construction and real estate industries, and used for planning and implementing solutions for projects like building construction and land development.
• Surveyor co-ordinates analysis with the help of engineers, architects, valuers and clients.

INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING In short. Makes sure legal. a surveyor 1. Co-ordinates the usage of information in projects with industry-related personnel like architects and engineers 3. environmental and social issues are taken into account in the implementations of project solutions. economic. . Collects and analyses land and geographic information 2.

the surveying profession in Malaysia is divided into 4 main divisions :  Land Surveying (LS)  Quantity Surveying (QS)  Building Surveying (BS)  Property Management.INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING • The surveying profession is multi-faceted with varied disciplines. Valuation & Estate Agency Surveying (PMVS) 6 . • Under The Institution of Surveyors Malaysia (ISM).

a)Who d)Where QS c) How b)What .

. financial and contractual administration • Advises the client on appropriate contract arrangement as well as the legal contract and conditions under which the building will be constructed.~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ • QUANTITY SURVEYOR (QS) is a construction professional • QS is qualified and adequately trained to advise on all aspects of construction costs.

• An expert on the cost and management of construction projects (a)building.~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ • QS: Acting on behalf of the CLIENT  Advises the Architect and Engineer on the cost implications such as: (i) different construction methods (ii) alternative choice of materials and size (iii) quality of the project. (b) civil or (c) heavy engineering . • To ensure that each element is reconciled with the cost plan allowance  overall project cost remains within the budget.

taxes and other charges  Running and maintenance costs for the new building. .~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ • Whenever any building project is proposed. • These include :      Site preparation cost Construction Labour Material and plant costs Professional fees. it is important that the cost involved is known in advance.

(ii) Site conditions and working arrangements and (iii) Give the client accurate budget and time estimates. .~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ • QS must be able to assess  (i) Implications of changes in design.

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ a) Basic Service b)Supplementary Service SCOPE OF SERVICES .

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ ii)Measurement iii) Procurement i) Estimation a) BASIC SERVICE iv) Payment .

– The estimated cost of a work is a close approximation of its actual cost (by measuring) – Purpose  to give the owner a reasonably accurate idea of the cost to help him decide whether the work can be undertaken as proposed or needs to be curtailed or abandoned. . and the expenses likely to be incurred. depending upon the availability of funds and prospective direct and indirect benefits.~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ • i) ESTIMATION: – ESTIMATION The process of calculation the quantities of various items of work.

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ i) ESTIMATION (Cont’d): – Under-estimating  client getting an unpleasant shock when tenders are opened and drastically modifying or abandoning the work at that stage – Over-estimating  estimator will lose his client or his job. – This knowledge is used  construction of new building with new design – Also based on Estimators’ experienced & knowledge  since it based on architectural drawing . or in any case his confidence.

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ i) ESTIMATION (Cont’d):  Example: The cost of brickwork in a building would be determined as below: (i) Cost of Material (a) Brick (b) Cement (c ) sand (d) Water (ii) Labor Cost (a) skilled (b) Unskilled RM RM (iii) (iv) (v) Total of Material & Labor Cost Cost of plant Cost of handling & transportation RM RM RM (vi) Overhead & profit TOTAL COST OF BRICKWORK RM .

.~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ i) ESTIMATION(Cont’d): • By using this estimating knowledge. a QS will be able:  Preparation of preliminary cost estimates and cost plans of the development project.  Advise on cost estimates in relation to design development of a project.

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ ii) MEASUREMENT: • MEASUREMENT The process of controlling the construction cost by accurate measurement of the work required • Measurement  Also known as “ TAKING-OFF” • The quantities are measured from drawings and specifications prepared by architects and engineers  known as “Bill of Quantities (BQs) • Purpose  in order to prepare tender @ contract documents .

. a QS will be able: •To prepare the Bill of Quantities or Specification document for tendering purposes.~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ ii) MEASUREMENT(Cont’d): By using this measurement knowledge.

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ ii) MEASUREMENT(Cont’d): • BQs are prepared in accordance to: (a) Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works (SMM 2) (b) Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement of Civil Engineering Works (CESMM) .

or services at the operational level” for example. property. and negotiating directly with the source of supply” • BUT. contracting. purchasing. the term PROCUREMENT is widely used in different context such as: (i) Commerce (ii) Defence (iii) Construction .~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ iii) PROCUREMENT: • Generally PROCUREMENT refer to “ The action or process of acquiring or obtaining material.

Selective. Detailed. Specialist E M – Statutory approval E N – Tendering  Open. Negotiated T S .~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ iii) PROCUREMENT (Cont’d): • CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT  The process of acquiring the construction project • 7 main element of the process of construction procurement & may be divided into 2 broad categories: (a) Pre-Construction Stage (Before the Construction) 5 – Initiation E – Funding L – Design  Schematic.

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ iii) PROCUREMENT (Cont’d): 2 (b) Construction Stage (During the Construction) • Construction  involved Management & physical construction process • Risk allocation E L E M E N T S .

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ iii) PROCUREMENT (Cont’d): • There are 2 main types of system of CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT in Malaysia such as: (a) Traditional system (b) Design & Build @ Turnkey system • Apart from that there are also a few new System like Management Based system ( Built. Privatisation) . Operate. Partnering. Transfer) and Innovative System (PFI.

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ iii) PROCUREMENT (Cont’d): (a) Traditional system: Client Consultant Main Cont Suppliers Sub-Cont Diagram 1: Contractual relationship Brief Design Tender Construction Diagram 2 : Sequence of operation .

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ iii) PROCUREMENT (Cont’d): Traditional system: • Advantages : – Allow price to be fixed in advance construction – Designer  full control of design process • Disadvantages: – Longer development period  Client delay in making decision – May encourage adversary between the parties  many people involved .

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ iii) PROCUREMENT (Cont’d): (b) Design & Build System: Client D & B Cont Suppliers Sub-Cont Diagram 3 : Contractual relationship Brief Tender Design Construction Diagram 4 : Sequence of operation .

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ iii) PROCUREMENT (Cont’d): Design & Build system: • Advantages: – Price is fixed in advance construction – Overlapping of design & construction process shorter development process • Disadvantages: – Project cost  higher than traditional – Project often lacks of aesthetic values .

.~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ iii) PROCUREMENT (Cont’d): • By using this procurement knowledge. – Organize the calling of tenders – Evaluation of tenders received in the form of tender reports. a QS will be able: – Advise on procurement. – Preparation and execution of the formal contract. tendering and contractual procedures and arrangement.

• A QS will be able to: – Prepare the Interim valuation of works in progress on site for purposes of interim payments. – Do a settlement of the final accounts of the project. .~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ iv) PAYMENT: • CONSTRUCTION PAYMENT  The process of paying /transfer of money or goods for the construction works done. – Prepare the financial statement of regular intervals during the construction period.

– Projection of estimated project or development expenditure and anticipated income cash flows. – Project management of construction project. – Evaluation of contractors registered for prequalification. – Comparative cost studies on the economics of the project during design stage. .~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ b) Supplementary services may also be provided by the Professional Quantity Surveyor if required: – Preparation of feasibility studies of a project.

– Valuation or auditing of contractual claims for arbitrations litigation cases. – Valuation or auditing of insurance claims for fire damaged buildings. – Auditing of contracts and their related budgets and expenditure. – Pricing of Bills of Quantities or negotiating and agreeing Schedule of Rates. – Application of the full scope of quantity surveying services in Turnkey or Privatisation Contracts.~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ Supplementary services (Cont’d): – Life-cycle costing and studies on economics of alternative design. .

QUANTITY SURVEYING BQSM (Board of Quantity Surveyor Malaysia) PROFESSIONAL BODY ISM ( The Institution of Surveyor Malaysia) .

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ BQSM: • The Board of Quantity Surveyors Malaysia was set up by an Act of Parliament. • The Board consists of a President. Malaysia. – To hear and determine disputes relating to professional conduct or ethics of quantity surveyors. .e. i. Registration of Quantity Surveyors Act 1967. Act 487 (revised 1992). a Registrar and sixteen (16) members appointed by the Minister of Works. – To determine and regulate the professional conduct and ethics of the quantity surveying profession in Malaysia. – To keep and maintain a register of quantity surveyors in Malaysia – To keep and maintain a register of firms and bodies corporate practicing as consulting quantity surveyors in Malaysia.

Geomatic and Land Surveying Division .Property Consultancy Valuation Surveying Division .~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ ISM: The Institution of Surveyors. Malaysia (ISM) is the professional institution representing the surveying profession in Malaysia and consists of four main divisions.Quantity Surveying Division .Building Surveying Division . namely : .

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ ISM: • Then known as “The Malayan Institution of Surveyors”. and the First Council Meeting of the Institution was held on 14 December 1961. 1966.M held on 19 June. the name of the Institution was changed to the “Institution of Surveyors.G. • At the E. Malaysia (ISM)” – To continuously improve the standards of professional practice and ethics – To promote the welfare and professional development of members – To expand by incorporating related disciplines into the profession BACK .

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ Quantity Surveyors may work in a variety of sectors such as : Private consultancies Government agencies Educational institutions Construction companies Property developers Banks Financial institutions Commercial organizations .

~ QUANTITY SURVEYING~ ~With all these skills place QUANTITY SURVEYORS in a strong position to take a leading managerial role throughout the development of a project~ .


the sea and structures – Instigate the advancement and development of such practices .~ LAND SURVEYING~ • The role of a Land Surveyor (LS) can be summarized by its definition "A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to: – Assemble and assess land and geographic related information – Use that information for the purpose of planning and implementing the efficient administration of the land.

~ BUILDING SURVEYING~ • The role of a Building Surveyor (BS) offers specialist services on matters relating to building and property development such as : Project and construction management Maintenance and repair of building Refurbishment and restoration of old properties Building law and regulation Demolition works Property development. .

VALUATION & ESTATE AGENCY SURVEYING ~ • The range of services that the PMVS members provide include: • • • • • Property Valuation Estate Agency Property Management Market Research/Feasibility Studies Consultancy .~ PROPERTY MANAGEMENT.

Construction Procurement in Malaysia.IIUM Mokhtar Puteh (2000). Malaysia. CIDB Paul Sanghera (2010).Research Centre.~REFERENCES~ Khairuddin Abdul Rashid (2002). Malaysia.Institute of Surveyor Malaysia Mohd Fauzi Abdul Hamid (2005).PMP Exam in Depth. Course Technology 43 . Malaysia Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works. USA. Malaysia Standard Method of Measurement of Civil Engineering Works.