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A thesis submitted for the partial fulfillment of the M. Sc. (Drug Chemistry) Degree By Mr. BALTE ANUP SATISH Under the guidance of Prof. Shridhar P. Gejji Department of Chemistry University of Pune Pune 411007 ( June 2007 )
Defining the system: The Cyclodextrins has a specific coupling of glucose monomers in cyclic manner giving a rigid conical molecular structure with a hydrophilic exterior and hollow hydrophobic interior of a specific volume. This internal cavity is capable of accommodating wide range of guest molecules including polar as well as non-polar aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The inside cavity of appropriate dimension to bind to various guest molecules to form an inclusion complexes. The paracetamol is a polar molecule. The width of molecule is 0.43nm and height is around 0.78nm. The molecule can be accommodated in all the three CDs. The complex of Paracetamol and CDs is stable due to hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions.
Attempt is to get solution of :
• How the guest (paracetamol) molecule orients itself in the cavity of α,β and γ cyclodextrins? • Which types of interactions govern the encapsulation of guest in the cavity of CD? • How the hydroxyl groups of CD and amide, hydroxyl group of Paracetamol interact to give stable inclusion complex. • What are the binding energies of guest? • What are the energies associated with the inclusion?
Cyclodextrins as Hosts
Cyclodextrins are the cyclic oligosaccharides made up of 6 or more α – D glucopyranose units linked by 1→ 4 glycosidic linkages. These were firstly described by A .Villers in 1891. There are mainly three types of cyclodextrines. α cyclodextrines = made of six glucose molecules linked in ring. β cyclodextrines = made of seven glucose molecules linked in ring. γ cyclodextrines = made of eight glucose molecules linked in ring.
α, β, and γ cyclodextirnes
Properties of cyclodextrins
1) It has hydrophobic interior and hydrophilic exterior. 2) Due to hydroxyl groups there are many sites for hydrogen bonding and other interactions. 3) They Form host – guest inclusion compounds with lipophilic compounds. 4) Solubility: - soluble in water (low), DMF, DMSO, Pyridine. 5) Low toxicity. 6) Biodegradable. 7) Complex formation is in stoichemtric ratio ( 1:1,1:2,2:1) 8) complexation is Substrate unspecific 9) Complexes with lower alcohols, amines or with compound contating heteroatom is easy. 10) Complex is stable in water solution.
The ability of cyclodextrin to form inclusion complex with a guest molecule is a function of two key factors:1) Steric Relative size of cyclodextrin to guest molecule molecule should be comparable. If the guest is wrong size, it will not fit to cyclodextrin. 2) Thermodynamic interaction There must be favorable net energetic driving force that pulls the guest into the cyclodextrin.
• • • • • •
Forces involed in complexation are H – bonding Vander waal interactions hydrophobic interactions dipole moment But not COVALENT BONDS
Cyclodextrin has vast applications in various fields. 1) Cyclodextrins can release the drug in the body (acts as a drug
carrier) 2)Cyclodextrin can be employed for environment protection 3) They are used in food industry for preparation of cholesterol free products. 4)They have ability to stabilize, the volatile or unstable compounds and the reduction of unwanted taste and odour. 5) It is used to solubilization of hydrophobic compounds. 6) Separation of compound in the form of complexes can also be done . 7)Controlled release of compound (drugs, fragrances) is also possible.
Paracetamol as guest
Paracetamol is a minor analgesic that is given orally for relief of mild to moderate pain. It also has anti – pyretic effect and is commonly used in children forthis action. It is also known as Acetaminophen.
Fig: paracetamol Paracetamol consists of a benzene ring core, substituted by one hydroxyl group and the nitrogen atom of an amide group in the Para (1,4) pattern. The amide group is acetamide (ethanamide). It is extensively conjugated system, as the lone pair of the hydroxyl oxygen, the benzene pi cloud, the nitrogen lone pair, the p – orbital on the carbonyl carbon and the lone pair on the carbonyl oxygen are all conjugated.
Computational Method Structure drawing by Winmopac Geometry optimization by PM3 method Frequency and frontier orbital calculations Calculation of Stabilization energy of conformers
Calculations Stabilization energy of cyclodextrin complex with paracetamol is calculated as 1) ∆E = Ecomplex – ( Ecd + Eguest ) * 2625.5 kJ mol–1 where, ∆E = stabilized energy. Ecomplex = energy of complex. Ecd = energy of host (cyclodextrin). Eguest = energy of guest (paracetamol) 2) ∆Eref = E most stable complex – Ecomplex ) * 2625.5 kJ mol–1 where, ∆Eref = energy of complex with reference to most stable complex11
Calculated energies of complexes are:complex ∆E , kJ mol–1 ∆Eref , kJ mol–1 0.00 02.6 11.03 13.1 13.1 23.6 26.3 39.4 No of Hbonding 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 No of H-H interactio ns 3 4 2 4 3 3 3 3
Alpha 1 Alpha 2 Alpha 3 Alpha 4 Alpha 5 Alpha 6 Alpha 7 Alpha 8
–66.7 –64.88 –54.4 –52.0 –53.1 –43.8 –39.1 –39.4
Alpha 1, ∆E = – 66.7 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 0 kJ mol–1)
Alpha 2, ∆E = – 64.9 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 02.6 kJ mol–1)
Alpha 3, ∆E = – 54.4 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 11.0 kJ mol–1)
Alpha 4, ∆E = – 52.0 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 13.1 kJ mol–1)
Alpha 5, ∆E = – 53.1 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 13.1 kJ mol–1)
Alpha 6, ∆E = – 43.8 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 23.6 kJ mol–1)
Alpha 7, ∆E = – 39.1 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 26.3 kJ mol–1)
Alpha 8, ∆E = – 27.3 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 39.4 kJ mol–1)
Observation The energy of the complex is less than the sum of energies of host (cyclodextrin) and guest (paracetamol). Complex of α cyclodextrin with paracetamol : The most stable complex is of energy –66.7 kJ mol–1.The paracetamol molecule has width around 0.44nm, and inner diameter of alpha cyclodextrin is about 0.57nm. So paracetamol has to fix itself in guest straight up only. when methyl group is upward the hydrogen bonding may occur with three hydrogen atoms thus leading to more stability, the nitrogen lone pair and carbonyl oxygen may also interact with hydrogen of cyclodextrin. But if hydroxyl group is upward then hydrogen bonding can occur only with one hydrogen and thus complex is not much stable. The Hydrogen – Hydrogen interactions are much strong in α complex than the hydrogen bonding The extent of hydrogen bonding is less than the H – H interactions.
Beta 1 Beta 2 Beta 3 Beta 4 Beta 5 Beta 6 Beta 7 Beta 8 Beta 9 Beta 10 Beta 11
–84.4 –80.1 –70.1 –64.4 –63.72 –61.5 –61.1 –55.6 –49.5 –50.10 +820.3
0.00 05.3 15.8 21.0 21.5 23.6 26.3 31.5 36.8 36.8 905.7
1 1 1 0 2 1 2 0 0 0 2
2 2 3 3 2 3 2 1 2 3 3
Complex of β cyclodextrin with paracetamol:
The most stable complex is of energy –84.4 kJ mol–1.The inner diameter of beta cyclodextrin is 0.78nm.Here the paracetamol molecule can be rotated and can also be kept slightly horizontal. The interaction can occur with primary as well as secondary hydroxyl group of cyclodextrin,leading to more stablilty. Thus the position of hydroxyl or methyl group do not affect stability of complex. The extent of hydrogen bonding is greater in β complexes than H - H interactions
Beta 1, ∆E = – 84.4 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 0.0 kJ mol–1)
Beta 2, ∆E = – 80.1 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 05.3 kJ mol–1)
Beta 3, ∆E = – 70.1 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 15.8 kJ mol–1)
Beta 4, ∆E = – 64.4 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 21.0 kJ mol–1)
Beta 5, ∆E = – 63.7 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 21.5 kJ mol–1)
Beta 6, ∆E = – 61.5 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 23.6 kJ mol–1)
Beta 7, ∆E = – 61.1 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 26.3 kJ mol–1)
Beta 8, ∆E = – 55.6 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 31.5 kJ mol–1)
Beta 9, ∆E = – 49.5 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 36.8 kJ mol–1)
Beta 10, ∆E = – 50.1 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 36.8 kJ mol–1)
Beta 11, ∆E = +820.3 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 905.7 kJ mol– 1 )
complex Gamma 1 Gamma 2 Gamma 3 Gamma 4 Gamma 5 Gamma 6 Gamma 7 Gamma 8 Gamma 9 Gamma 10
∆E , kJ mol–1 –104.5 –97.1 –95.8 –91.8 –91.5 –88.7 –84.5 –82.0 –82.0 –35.2
∆Eref , kJ mol–1 0.00 07.9 07.9 13.1 13.5 15.8 18.4 21.0 21.0 68.3
No of Hbonding 0 1 1 1 0 1 3 0 1 0
No of H-H interactions 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 2
Complex of γ cyclodextrin with paracetamol:
The most stable complex is of energy –104.5 kJ mol–1.The inner diameter of gamma cyclodextrin is 0.95nm.Here the paracetamol molecule can be rotated freely. The paracetamol entirely fits in to the of γ cyclodextrin, so the formation of hydrogen bonding and other interaction are easier thus leading to most stable complex of paracetamol. The position of hydroxyl or methyl group do not affect stability of complex. The of γ complex is stable due to balance of both H – bonding and H – H interactions.
Gamma 1, ∆E = – 104.5 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 00.0 kJ mol–1)
Gamma 2, ∆E = – 97.1 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 07.9 kJ mol–1)
Gamma 3, ∆E = – 95.8 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 07.9 kJ mol–1)
Gamma 4, ∆E = – 91.8 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 13.1 kJ mol–1)
Gamma 5, ∆E = – 91.5 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 13.1 kJ mol–1)
Gamma 6, ∆E = – 88.7 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 15.8 kJ mol–1)
Gamma 7 , ∆E = – 84.5 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 18.4 kJ mol–1)
Gamma 8, ∆E = – 82.0 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 21.0 kJ mol–1)
Gamma 9, ∆E = – 82.0 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 21.0 kJ mol–1)
Gamma 10, ∆E = – 35.2 kJ mol–1 (∆Erel = 68.3 kJ mol–1)
1) All the cyclodextrin i.e. ( α, β & γ ) forms stable inclusion complex with paracetamol. 2) The γ cyclodextrin forms most stable complex while α forms least stable complex. 3) The γ complexes are stable by 40 kJ mol–1energy than α and by 20 kJ mol–1energy than β. 4) The β complexes are stable by 20 kJ mol–1energy than α . 5) The cavity of cyclodextrin and number of possible hydrogen bonding and other interactions determines the stability of the complex. 6) The hydroxyl group of cyclodextrins and hetero atoms in guest are responsible for hydrogen bonding and complex stability. 7) The position of methyl or hydroxyl group affects the α complex stability and not of β & γ complexes. 8) The Hydrogen bonding as well as Hydrogen – Hydrogen interactions strongly govern the stability of complex.
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