Atomic Structure Timeline

Democritus (400 B.C.)
• Proposed that matter was composed of tiny indivisible particles • Not based on experimental data • Greek: atomos

Alchemy (next 2000 years)
• Mixture of science and mysticism. • Lab procedures were developed, but alchemists did not perform controlled experiments like true scientists.

John Dalton (1807)
• British Schoolteacher – based his theory on others’ experimental data • Solid Sphere Model – atom is a uniform, solid sphere

John Dalton
Dalton’s Four Postulates 1. Elements are composed of small indivisible particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different.

3. Compounds contain atoms of more than one element 4. In a compound, atoms of different elements always combine the same way.

Henri Becquerel (1896)
• Discovered radioactivity – spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus • Three types: – alpha (α) - positive – beta (β) - negative – gamma (γ) - neutral

J. J. Thomson (1903)
• Cathode Ray Tube Experiments – beam of negative particles • Discovered Electrons – negative particles within the atom • Plum-pudding Model

Thomson’s ExperimentThe Cathod

High Voltage Gas at very low pressure(almost vacuum)

Direction of Cathode Rays

Cathode screen with hole
to vacuum pump

Anode +

High Voltage Gas at very low pressure(almost vacuum)
Negatively charged plate

-

Direction of cathode ray

+

Cathode screen with hole

Positively charged plate

to vacuum pump

Anode +

High Voltage

Shadow formed

Cathode screen with hole
to vacuum pump

Anode +

High Voltage

Cathode screen with hole
to vacuum pump

Anode +

Thomson • Thomson studied the passage of an electric current through a gas. • As the current passed through the gas, it gave off rays of negatively charged particles.

Model

J. J. Thomson (1903)
Plum-pudding Model – positive sphere (pudding) with negative electrons (plums) dispersed throughout

Eugen Goldstein (1886)
• Discovered proton (component of canal rays)
– Positive particles within the atom

High Voltage Cathode rays (Electrons) Direction of canal rays

Canal rays (positive particles

Direction of Cathode Rays

Cathode to vacuum pump

screen with hole

Anode +

Robert Milikan (1909)
• Determined the electric charge of an electron • The charge on a single electron: 1.602 × 10−19 coulomb

Milikan’s Oil Drop Experiment

Ernest Rutherford (1911)
• Gold Foil Experiment • Discovered the nucleus – dense, positive charge in the center of the atom • Nuclear Model

Rutherford’s ExperimentGold Foil

Gold foil

Source of alpha particles

Fluorescent screen

NUCLEUS

Alpha particles

Atoms of gold

Ernest Rutherford (1911)

• Nuclear Model – dense, positive nucleus surrounded by negative electrons

James Chadwick (1932)
Discovered the neutron – neutral particles within the atom

Subatomic Particles
ATOM ATOM NUCLEUS NUCLEUS PROTONS PROTONS P O S IT IV E POSITIVE CHARGE CHARG E NEUTRONS NEUTRONS NEUTRAL NEUTRAL CHARGE CHARG E ELECTRONS ELECTRONS
NEGATIVE C H A R G E N E G A T I V E CHARGE

Atomic Structure

Mass Number Atomic Number

12 6

C

Element

Mass Number Atomic Number

A Z

X

Atomic Number (Z)
• Number of protons in an atom • Unique for each element Z = p+

Mass Number (A)
• Number of nucleons in an atom
– Nucleon is the numerical sum of the protons and neutrons A = p + + n0

Subatomic Particles
ATOM ATOM NUCLEUS NUCLEUS PROTONS PROTONS P O S IT IV E POSITIVE CHARG E CHARGE NEUTRONS NEUTRONS NEUTRAL NEUTRAL CHARG E CHARGE ELECTRONS ELECTRONS NNEGATIVE CHARGE E G A T IV E C H A R G E

in a neutral atom Atomic Number equals the # of...

Most of the atom’s mass.

How do we compute for the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in a neutral atom?

• Protons p+ = Z • Electrons e- = p+ • Neutrons n0 = A – Z or

n0 = A – p+

Example
Determine A, Z, p+, e-, n0 and net charge of the neutral atom carbon. A = 12 Z=6 p+ = 6 e- = 6 n0 = 6 Net Charge = 0

12 6

C

Ions
• Charged particle • Exist when an atom transfers or gains one or more electrons • May be positive (cation) or negative (anion)

Example
Determine A, Z, p+, e-, n0 and net charge of the charged atom carbon. A = 12 Z=6 p+ = 6 e- = 6 – 4 = 2 n0 = 6 Net Charge = +4

12 6

C

4+

Isotopes
• Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. 1 Ex. 1H – hydrogen
2 1 3 1

H – deuterium H – tritium

Atomic Mass
• The mass of an atom in atomic mass unit (amu). • Atomic mass unit is defined as the mass exactly equal to 1/12 the mass of one carbon-12 atom

Example
The element copper has naturally occurring isotopes with mass numbers 63 and 65. The percent abundance and atomic masses are 69.2% for atomic mass=62.93 amu, and 30.8% for atomic mass=64.93. Calculate the relative atomic mass of copper.

Example
Calculate the relative/average atomic mass of bromine. The two isotopes of bromine have atomic masses and percent abundance of 78.92 amu (50.69%) and 80.92 amu (43.91%).

Compute for X.

Example
Relative Atomic Mass (amu)

Isotope

Atomic % mass Abundance (amu) 34.969 X 75.53

35

17

Cl Cl

35.45
37 17

24.47

Compute for X.

Example
Relative Atomic Mass (amu)

Isotope

Atomic % mass Abundance (amu) X 4.0026 0.0001

3

2

He He

4.0026
4 2

99.9999

Modern Atomic Theory

Niels Bohr (1913)
• Bright-Line Spectrum – tried to explain presence of specific colors in hydrogen’s spectrum • Energy Levels – electrons can only exist in specific energy

Niels Bohr (1913)
Bright-line spectrum • Planetary Model – electrons move in circular orbits within specific energy levels

Erwin Schrödinger (1926)
• Quantum mechanics – electrons can only exist in specified energy states • Electron cloud model – orbital: region around the nucleus where eare likely to be found

Erwin Schrödinger (1926)

Electron Cloud Model (orbital) • dots represent probability of finding an e-

Wave Model

James Chadwick (1932)
• Discovered neutrons – neutral particles in the nucleus of an atom • Irene and Frederic Joliot-Curie – Chadwick based his theory on their experimental evidence

James Chadwick (1932)

Neutron Model • revision of Rutherford’s Nuclear Model

Atomic Orbitals
• Orbital – Region of space around the nucleus where an electron is likely to be found – More energy = more orbitals

The Wave Model
• Today’s atomic model is based on the principles of wave mechanics. • According to the theory of wave mechanics, electrons do not move about an atom in a definite path, like the

The Wave Model
• In fact, it is impossible to determine the exact location of an electron. The probable location of an electron is based on how much energy the electron has. • According to the modern atomic model, at atom has a small positively charged nucleus surrounded by a large region in which there are enough electrons to make an atom neutral.

Electron Cloud:
• A space in which electrons are likely to be found. • Electrons whirl about the nucleus billions of times in one second • They are not moving around in random patterns. • Location of electrons depends upon how much energy the electron has.

Electron Cloud:
• Depending on their energy they are locked into a certain area in the cloud. • Electrons with the lowest energy are found in the energy level closest to the nucleus • Electrons with the highest energy are found in the outermost energy levels, farther from the nucleus.

Indivisible Electron

Nucleus

Orbit

Electron Cloud

Greek Dalton Thomson Rutherford Bohr Wave

X X X X X X X X X X X

Definition: spontaneous emission of particles and.or radiation TYPES: • Alpha (α) Ray – consists of positively charged particles • - has a low penetrating ability (can be stopped by paper)

RADIOACTIVITY

• Beta (β) rays – consists of electrons. • has a medium penetrating ability (can be stopped by heavy clothing)

• Gamma (γ) Rays – no charge and not affected by an external field. •

high penetrating ability (can be stopped by lead)

Particle

Fundamental Subatomic Particles
Symbol Relative Mass Electrical (g) Charge -1 +1 0 Mass (amu)

ELECTRON PROTON NEUTRON

ep+ n0

9.11 x 10-28 1.67 x 10-24 1.67 x 10-24

0.0006≈0 1.0073≈1 1.0087≈1

Electron Configuration
• Arrangement of electrons within the orbitals of the atom – The most stable configuration is the one in which electrons are in their lowest possible orbitals. This is called their Ground State. • If energy is added, electrons can move to a higher energy orbital. The atom is then considered to be in an excited state.

• Lithium – When lithium reacts with water, the atom goes to an excited state. – When the electron returns to its ground state, it gives of energy in the form of fire.

Example

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