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LIFE MANAGEMENT OF TRANSFORMERS

AND REACTOR
BY DGA ANALYSIS
Transformer Maintenance:-A Combination of actions carried out to
return an item to, or restore it to, an acceptable condition.

Preventive Maintenance:- Maintenance carried out at predetermined


intervals, or to other prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the
likelihood of an item not meeting an acceptable condition (i.e. Condition
Monitoring)

Various methods of preventive Maintenance:-


•SFRA
•Tan♪
•DGA
•Infrared Thermography
DISSOLVED GAS ANALYSIS

• IMPORTANCE OF TRANSFORMERS IN THE SYSTEM

• Importance Of Oil In Transformer

1) Provides Insulation

2) Acts as the Cooling Media

3) Dissolves moistures and gases as the result of Deteriotion of insulation

4) May extinguish Arc during Fault*

THE DGA INCLUDES:-


-Oil Sampling
-Analysis
-Results Interpretation
Taking Out OIL SAMPLE

Use GOOD Syringe,


The Test Results are as Good
as Syringe

Do Not use small


sampling port on
side of drain valve.
Always FLUSH Drain valve
Before taking samples

Also Flush The tube


and Syringe
Do not pull back on the
syringe barrel – apply slight
Resistance and allow fluid
pressure to fill syringe

Syringe should not have


any Bubble
Initially ,which may form
later, if so do
not let them release
GENERATION OF FAULT GASES
CAUSES OF GENERATION OF GASES
GASES ARE SHOWN ACCORDING TO MAJOR (MINOR) BASIS

▬►LEAST INTENSITY AND


PARTIAL DISCHARGE (CORONA) ENERGY

PYROLYSIS (THERMAL HEATING) ▬► SEVERE INTENSITY AND


MORE ENERGY

ARCING ▬► MOST SEVERE


INTENSITY AND HIGHEST
ENERGY
NOTED POINTS
2) LEFT STRIP SHOWS GASES DUE TO
PARTIAL DISCHARGE

4) THE GRAPH IS NOT IN SCALE AND IS


INDICATIVE ONLY

6) SMALL AMOUNT OF H2,CH4 AND O2 ARE


FORMED BY NORMAL AGING

4) DECOMPOSITION OF INSULATION
(CELLULOSE) STARTS NEARLY AT 100ºC
SOLUBILITY OF GASES IN OIL
RELATIVE SOLUBILITY AS THE FUNCTION OF
OIL TEMPERATURE
Analysis Types
- Total combustible gas analysis
- Multi-gas analysis

I) Total Combustible Gas Analysis


• Includes Gases Like

• Quantity of gases are measured in part per million (ppm)

•Standards Used in this seminar-


@ IEEE C-57-104-1991
@ IEC 60599[12] PAPER 18
FOUR CONDITION BASED GAS ANALYSIS ( BASED ON IEEE-C 57-104-1991 Std Table 4)

IEEE C57-104-1991 STANDARD

CONDITION I : Indicates Satisfactory operation


CONDITION II : May indicate presence of fault
CONDITION III : Indicate excessive decomposition of Oil/Insulation, Check gas
generation per day**
CONDITION IV : Continued operation could result in failure.
Action Based on Total Dissolved Combustible Gas Analysis (TDCG)
(BASED ON IEEE C 57-104-1991 Table-5)
BUT REMEMBER……..

1) THERE IS NO ‘QUICK AND SURE’ INTERPRETATION

2) ONLY ON THE BASIS OF DGA NEVER MAKE DECISION B’COZ


WRONG SAMPLING,MISHANDELING, EASY CONTAMINATION,MIS-LABELING

3) THE RATE OF RISE OF GAS/ SUDDEN RISE OF GAS IS MORE IMPORTANT THA
THE AMOUNT OF GAS (EXCEPT ACETELYNE C2H2)

4) THERFORE WE REQUIRES PROPER RECORD OF DGA

5) AN INCREASING GAS GENERATION RATE INDICATES A PROBLEM OF


INCREASING SEVERITY
NON-COMBUSTIBLE GASES: (N2,O2,CO2)

 THESE GASES CAN BE A RESULT OF LEAKAGE

 CO2 AND O2 ARE FORMED BY DEGRADATION OF CELLULOSE

 N2 IN OIL MAY HAVE COME FROM SHIPPING OF TRANSFORMER


BUT SHOULD HAVE CONSTANT LEVEL,INCREASE IN N2 INDICATE
POSSIBLE LEAKAGE OR MIS-HANDLING OF SAMPEL
ROGERS RATIO METHOD OF ANALYSIS

 USES 3 RATIOS AS

THIS METHOD IS FOR FAULT ANALYSING AND NOT FOR FAULT DETECTION

IEC 60599 STANDARD


 IS A POST FAULT ANALYSIS METHOD

 IF GASES USED FOR RATIO ARE LESS THAN 10% OF AMOUNT OF GAS
CHROMATOGRAPH DETECT,THE METHOD IS NOT RELIABLE
CARBON DIOXIDE TO CARBON MONOXIDE RATIO

CO2 & CO ARE FORMED BY DEGRADATION OF OIL IMPREGNATED


PAPER & INCREASES RAPIDELY WITH TEMPERATURE

Normally ratio is nearly 7

Not included in Rogers Analysis

If the ratio is less than 3 indicates probable paper involvement of


electric fault (arcing sparking)

Ratio Greater than 10 indicate paper involvement of Thermal fault (Hot-Spot)

If suspect arises one should go for Furan analysis


FURANS:

•Useful for estimation of residual life of transformers


• Are the family of organic compounds formed by degradations of insulation paper
•Changes in furanic number(concentration) are more important than individual number
MOISTURE IN TRANSFORMER OIL
EFFECTS
• Decrease Di-electric strength
• Degrades cellulose (Insulation Paper)
• Failure risk
•Is the worst enemy of Transformer

From where moisture comes in:-


1) formed by degradation of insulation as transformer ages.
2) Present in the insulation paper
3) Leakages if any (majorly in gasket seals)

Measurement of Moisture (By DGA)


-Moisture is measured in ppm
-Also expressed as moisture/dry weight i.e M/DW
-It can Also be expressed as % Saturation of water in oil (Expressed as
the % of moisture in oil compared with the maximum amount
of moisture the oil can hold.)
Dissolved Moisture in oil

Fig:- Transformer % Saturation Curve


Important points related moisture in oil:-
• A new transformer should have M/DW less than 0.5%

• When M/DW is reached to 2% a plan should be made for Xmer dry out

• Never Allow M/DW to go above 2.5% or 30% oil Saturation without


transformer dry-out

10)Top oil Temperature should be noted always while taking oil sample.

12) Failure of transformer due to moisture is the most common cause.

↑ Comparison of moisture distribution


in paper and oil

 Moisture distribution in paper


SUMMARY
 Used to find electrical & thermal fault in transformer
 Fault can be found at incipient stage
 Remedial measure can be initiated to avoid
major damage to transformer

 Avoid sampling in rainy or foggy weather

 Protect sample from direct light


 Avoid moisture & dust contamination

 Cotton waste & other fibrous materials should not be used


 Use the sampling containers exclusively for
transformer oil sampling
✈ Testing transformer oil periodically once
a year as per IS:1866-2000 will improve
the performance of transformer & conserve
transformer oil

✈ DGA is a powerful diagnostic tool for


predicting internal condition of transformer
@ Rate of rise of gas is more important than amount of gas

@ While Taking Sample one should note top oil temperature

@ Rogers Ratio Method is for fault analysis (post fault)

@ N2 Gas can be act as a key gas for identifying probable leakage


or sample mishandling

@ The M/DW For a new Transformer should be less than 0.5%

@ Transformer with M/DW Greater than 2.5% must be subjected to dry-ou

@ The DP Indicates the Residual life of the Transformer.


Date of test CO CH4 CO2 C 2 H4 C 2 H6 C 2 H2 H2 Remark
22.09.07 17 - 115 - - - 4 Commissioning value
10.04.08 14 121 315 332 58 1 21

20.08.08 91 262 2100 1698 503 5 189

22.09.08 95 301 2199 1740 555 6 193 Bottom sample


22.09.08 94 303 2201 1755 565 6 195 Top sample

Rogers Ratio

C2H2/C2H4 0
Code 0 2 2
CH4/H2 1.55
C2H4/C2H6 3 Result 8 Fault over Temp range 700c
QUERIES