m
)
B1.1 Nature of the solar resource
Irradiance
The amount of the suns energy that
reaches the earth (before entering the
atmosphere)
The average value of irradiance per
year is called the solar constant
(G
sc
)and is equivalent to 1353, 1367 or
1373
W/m
2
depending on who you
believe
1353 (1.5%) from Thekaekara (1976) derived from measurements at very
high atmosphere and used by NASA
1367 (1%) Adopted by the World Radiation Centre
1373 (12%) from Frohlich (1978)  derived from satellite data
B1.2 Nature of the solar resource
Earths orbit aint circular
B1.2 Nature of the solar resource
Earths orbit: Variation in radiation
1,300
1,350
1,400
1,450
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
I
r
r
a
d
i
a
n
c
e
(
W
/
m
2
)
B1.2 Nature of the solar resource
Earths orbit: Variation in radiation
G
on
= Irradiance
G
sc
= Solar constant
n = day number (number
of days since 1st
January)
Note: cosine is for degrees
360
1 0.033cos
365
on sc
n
G G
 
= +

\ .
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Earth is tilted 23.45
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Earth is tilted 23.45
On the winter solstice (December 21)
The north pole has its maximum angle of inclination
away from the sun
Everywhere above 66.55 N (9023.45) is in darkness
for 24 hours, Everywhere above 66.55 S is in
sunlight for 24 hours
the sun passes directly overhead over the tropic of
Capricorn (23.45 S)
On the equinox (March 22 & September 22)
Both poles are equidistant
the day is exactly 12 hours long
the sun passes directly overhead over the equator
The sun tracks a straight line across the sky
On the summer solstice (June 22)
The reverse of the winter solstice
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry
Beam
radiation

o
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry
 = Latitude
o = Declination the between the
earths axis of rotation and the
surface of a cylinder through the
earths orbit
o = Declination
n = day number (number
of days since 1st
January)
Note: cosine is for degrees
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Declination
284
23.45sin 360
365
n
o
+
 
=

\ .
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Hour angle
Rotation
e
Beam
radiation
The angular displacement of the sun
east or west of the local meridian due
to the rotation of the earth
Denoted by (e)
15 per hour noon is zero, so
morning negative, afternoon positive
Depends on Apparent Solar Time
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Hour angle
AST = Apparent solar time
LCT = Local clock time
TZ = Time zone
L = Longitude (west = +
ve
)
EQT = Equation of time
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Hour angle
15 60
L EQT
AST LCT TZ = + + +
Sunrise and sunset are asymmetrical
the plane of the Earth's equator is inclined
to the plane of the Earth's orbit around the
Sun
the orbit of the Earth around the Sun is an
ellipse and not a circle
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Equation of time
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Equation of time
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
E
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
o
f
t
i
m
e
(
m
i
n
)
EQT = Equation of time
n = day number
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Equation of time
Where
0.000075 0.001868cos 0.032077sin
229.2
0.014615cos 2 0.04089sin 2
B B
EQT
B B
+  
=

\ .
( )
360
1
365
B n =
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Equation of time:
Analemma
http://www.analemma.com
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Sun angles
o
s
Beam
radiation
Horizontal
u
z

o
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Sun angles
u
z
o
s
s
N
South
E
W
Zenith
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Sun angles
u
z
= Zenith angle the angle between
the vertical (zenith) and the line of
the sun
o
s
= Solar attitude angle the angle
between the horizontal and the line
to the sun
s
= Solar azimuth angle the angle of
the projection of beam radiation on
the horizontal plane (with zero due
south, east negative and west
positive)
u
Z
= Zenith Angle
 = Latitude
o = Declination
e = Hour angle
s
= Solar azimuth
angle
o
s
= Solar attitude
angle
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Sun angles
cos cos cos cos sin sin
z
u  o e  o = +
sin cos cos sin sin
cos
cos
s
s
 o e  o
=
Note:
& e should be the same
sign
e
s
= Sunset angle
o = Declination
 = Latitude
Note:
Day length is in hours
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Sun angles: Sunset
angle and day length
cos tan tan
s
e o  =
( )
1
2
Day length cos tan tan
15
o 
=
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Collector angles

(  )

Normal
Beam
radiation
Horizontal
u
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Collector angles
u
z
u
o
s
s

N
South
E
W
Zenith
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Collector angles
 = Slope the angle between the plane
of the collector and the horizontal
= Surface azimuth angle the
deviation of the projection on a
horizontal plane of the normal to the
collector from the local meridian
(with zero due south, east negative
and west positive)
u = Angle of incidence the angle
between the beam radiation on the
collector and the normal
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Collector angles
cos cos sin sin sin
cos cos sin cos
sin cos
s s
s s
s
u o 
o 
o 
=
+
+
( )
( )
cos sin sin cos cos sin cos
cos cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos sin sin sin
u o    
o e    
o  e
=
+
+
u = Angle of
incidence
o
s
= Solar attitude
angle
= Surface azimuth
angle
s
= Solar azimuth
angle
 = Collector slope
o = Declination
 = Latitude
e = Hour angle
Sun angles
Earth angles
e
ss
= Sunset angle
o = Declination
 = Latitude
 = Collector slope
B1.3 Nature of the solar resource
Solar geometry: Collector angles
( )
cos tan tan
ss
e o   =
Northern Hemisphere
( )
cos tan tan
ss
e o   = +
Southern Hemisphere
B5.1 System design
Irradiance: Variables
Latitude at the point of observation
Orientation of the surface in relation to
the sun
Day of the year
Hour of the day
Atmospheric conditions
B5.1 System design
Irradiance on a horizontal surface
,
cos
b b n z
G G u =
, b n
G
b
G
G
b
= Beam Irradiance normal to the earths surface (W/m
2
)
G
b,n
= Beam Irradiance (W/m
2
)
u
z
= Zenith angle
, b T
G
, b n
G
, ,
cos
b t b n
G G u =
G
b,t
= Beam Irradiance normal to a tilted surface (W/m
2
)
G
b,n
= Beam Irradiance (W/m
2
)
u = Angle of incidence
B5.5 System design
Tilt: Beam radiation
, ,
,
,
cos
cos
cos cos
b t b n
b t
b b n z z
G G
R
G G
u
u
u u
= = =
, b n
G
, b t
G
b
G
, b n
G
B5.5 System design
Tilt: Beam radiation
Much more than documents.
Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
Cancel anytime.