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Chapter outline

Classifications of ecosystems Scopes of Ecosystem-produced services Law of tolerance Human are a part of the biosphere How are human considering the earth Human activities may affect the ecosystems

Classification of Ecosystems

Terrestrial (land): Rain forest, coniferous forest, savanna, desert Aquatic:- Marine : sea. oceans - Fresh water : lakes, rivers Transition from land to aquatic (Wet land): Swamp, mangrove

Terrestrial ecosystems

Land, transition and aquatic ecosystems

Two different ecosystems (based on input of energy)

Natural ecosystems: changes naturally without human interferences Man-made ecosystems: require human interferences to manage and to add an energy or matter for maintaining a balance ecosystems (city, village, crop land etc.)

Scopes of Ecosystem-produced Services

Ecosystem Services for human wellbeing

a $200-million facility designed to be a self-sustaining life support system designed to mimic the earths (Biosphere 1) After 2 years numerous unexpected problems encountered such as: - Oxygen disappeared mysterously - N cycling failed to function properly - CO2 concentration rise to levels that threatened to the humans - Most of animal and plant spescies become extinct (punah) In brief: Biosphere 2 FAILED to maintain a life-support system for eight people. Biosphere 2 Our World video.flv

Every ecosystems consist living and non-living components

Some need a hot environment and others a cold Each population in en ecosystem has a range of tolerance to variation of its physical and chemical environment

Law of tolerance in nature

Each population in en ecosystem has a range of tolerance to variation its physical and chemical environment:

Law of tolerance

The existence, abundance, and distribution of a species in a ecosystems are determined by whether the level of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the range tolerated by that species

Human tolerance to environment

Unlike other organisms, human could enhance the range of their tolerance due to the ability to think, to develop technology and to modify/change the nature

We are a part of the biosphere

How are human considering the earth ?

Gaia concept (Lovelock): Biosfer adalah suatu kesatuan yang mengatur diri sendiri (selfregulating) dan mampu mempertahankan kondisi Bumi dengan mengendalikan lingkungan kimiawi dan fisis. Jadi, Bumi adalah suatu super-ekosistem dimana banyak proses dan umpan balik saling berinteraksi untuk menjaga kondisi kimiawi dan fisis di Bumi. Dalam hal ini, makhluk hidup memiliki peran penting peran terpenting dalam menjaga keseimbangan (homeostatis). The earth as a aerospace aircraft (Odum 1989) : Bumi dapat dianalogikan dengan suatu pesawat ruang angkasa yang sangat besar karena merupakan suatu benda/kesatuan yang melayang di angkasa luar, dengan sistem pendukung kehidupannya sendiri (dalam bentuk udara, air, makanan, energi). Dengan adanya tekanan penduduk, pencemaran, dan pengelolaan yang buruk, maka sistem pendukung kehidupan ini menjadi terancam:ibarat berkurangnya persediaan oksigen bagi astronot dalam suatu pesawat ruang angkasa.

Where is the human position?

In the ecosystem human are top consumers Human can change their environment

Human activities may affect the ecosystems

Human use of the biomass produced by photosynthesis

At least 27% of the earths total net primary productivity have been destroyed and altered by human activities

What causes ecosystems to change?

Changes caused by humans:


Water pollution
Air pollution
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Land pollution


Hopes vs Disasters

Sadness of Gaia

The Earth Goddess looks on sadly, aware that our human weaknesses will mean many years of education to prevent the ruin of our precious world. The contents of her wings symbolise all the creatures that need protection. As always "Gaia" will be there to listen and to comfort, bringing with her the rainbow of hope. The clouds are gathering around our world but she knows she must be strong and work to rectify mans errors, in the belief that he will one day understand that our precious earth deserves our protection. Let us hope that one day soon "Gaia" will look upon the earth and be satisfied that her lessons have been learnt!

How can humans help to prevent negative changes in ecosystems?


Use resources wisely


Laws that control pollution


Clean up litter

Keep rivers and lakes clean