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Thermal Treatment/Disposal: Incineration

Chapter 12

Activity
Why use incineration? What are the drawbacks?

Regulations
Historical perspective HW incinerators vs. cement kilns and light aggregate kilns and industrial boilers and furnaces

General Schematic

Types of Incinerators
Rotary kiln Fixed hearth Liquid injection Cement and lime kilns Fluidized bed Boiler systems Oxygen enriched Infrared

Fume Multiple chamber Multiple hearth Cyclonic Auger combustor Two-stage (starved air) Catalytic Molten salt

Other Thermal Processes


Plasma arc pyrolysis Microwave discharge Advanced electrical reactor In situ vitrification Wet air oxidation Supercritical water oxidation Calcination Thermal desorption

Classifications of Incinerators

Grate Open rack Stationary or moving Air circulation Large and irregular wastes Hearth Solid plate Variety of waste Suspension Sand or alumina bed fluidized with air Relatively uniform feed size

Typical Process Flow Diagram


Waste
Storage Pre-processing/blending Incineration Ash Flue Gas Stabilization Landfill

Pollution Control
Effluent POTW

Combustion Requirements

3 Ts + Excess O2

Typical Excess Air Reactions

CHCl + O2 + N2 CO2 + H2O + HCl + O2 + N2 + heat

Flue Gas Quench


Cool to:
500 - 700oF for spray dryer 180oF for low-temperature equipment

Air or water Concurrent or counter-current flow

Air Pollution Control


Pollution:
Particulates (including 10 priority metals) Acid gases

Systems
Wet Dry

Trial Burn
Test incinerator
Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) HCl Particulates CO Metals Dioxin and furans

POHC DRE
At least 99.99% on all selected POHCs during trial burn

Win Wout DRE 100 Win

HCl Emissions
Emission no greater than larger of 4 lb/h or 1% of HCl in stack gas

Particulate Emissions
At most 0.08 grains/dscf corrected to 7% O2 or 180 mg/dscm corrected to 7% O2

Emissions Example
Example 12-2 (p. 746)
Does incinerator performance meet requirements?

CO Emissions
100 ppm by volume as a 60-minute rolling average corrected to 7% O2 on a dry basis

CO and Particulate Example


Example 12-11 (p. 804)

14 Pc Pm 21 Ydry

Ydry

Ywet 1 w

Combustion Efficiency
At least 99.99%

CE

C CO2 C CO2 C CO

100

Dioxin and Furan Emissions


0.4 ng/dscm or 0.0001%

PCBs
At least 99.9999% DRE for liquid
Dwell time of 2 s at 1200 100 oC and 3% EA in stack gas OR Dwell time of 1.5 s at 1600 100 oC and 2% EA in stack gas

Design
Example 12-7 (p. 765)