Thermal Treatment/Disposal: Incineration

Chapter 12

Activity
• Why use incineration? • What are the drawbacks?

Regulations • Historical perspective • HW incinerators vs. cement kilns and light aggregate kilns and industrial boilers and furnaces .

General Schematic .

Types of Incinerators • • • • • • • • Rotary kiln Fixed hearth Liquid injection Cement and lime kilns Fluidized bed Boiler systems Oxygen enriched Infrared • • • • • • Fume Multiple chamber Multiple hearth Cyclonic Auger combustor Two-stage (starved air) • Catalytic • Molten salt .

Other Thermal Processes • • • • • • • • Plasma arc pyrolysis Microwave discharge Advanced electrical reactor In situ vitrification Wet air oxidation Supercritical water oxidation Calcination Thermal desorption .

Classifications of Incinerators • • • • Grate Open “rack” Stationary or moving Air circulation Large and irregular wastes Hearth Solid “plate” Variety of waste Suspension • Sand or alumina bed fluidized with air • Relatively uniform feed size • • .

Typical Process Flow Diagram Waste Storage Pre-processing/blending Incineration Ash Flue Gas Stabilization Landfill Pollution Control Effluent POTW .

Combustion Requirements 3 T’s + Excess O2 .

Typical Excess Air Reactions CHCl + O2 + N2  CO2 + H2O + HCl + O2 + N2 + heat .

700oF for spray dryer – 180oF for low-temperature equipment • Air or water • Concurrent or counter-current flow .Flue Gas Quench • Cool to: – 500 .

Air Pollution Control • Pollution: – Particulates (including 10 priority metals) – Acid gases • Systems – Wet – Dry .

Trial Burn Test incinerator – Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) – HCl – Particulates – CO – Metals – Dioxin and furans .

POHC DRE At least 99.99% on all selected POHCs during trial burn Win  Wout DRE  100 Win .

HCl Emissions Emission no greater than larger of 4 lb/h or 1% of HCl in stack gas .

Particulate Emissions At most 0.08 grains/dscf corrected to 7% O2 or 180 mg/dscm corrected to 7% O2 .

Emissions Example Example 12-2 (p. 746) Does incinerator performance meet requirements? .

CO Emissions 100 ppm by volume as a 60-minute rolling average corrected to 7% O2 on a dry basis .

804) 14 Pc  Pm 21  Ydry Ydry Ywet  1 w .CO and Particulate Example Example 12-11 (p.

99% CE  C CO2 C CO2  C CO 100 .Combustion Efficiency At least 99.

Dioxin and Furan Emissions 0.4 ng/dscm or 0.0001% .

5 s at 1600  100 oC and 2% EA in stack gas .PCBs At least 99.9999% DRE for liquid Dwell time of 2 s at 1200  100 oC and 3% EA in stack gas OR Dwell time of 1.

765) .Design Example 12-7 (p.

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