Environmental Engineering

Muhammad Arslan 2007-ME-49 4th Semester

Environmental Engineering?
This branch of engineering related with the Environment.

What areEnvironmental Engineers?
Environmental engineers are technical professionalswho design, evaluate, and implement systems that optimize utilization of natural resources while minimizing their degradation. They research, plan, and implement workable air, water, and soil systems and practices to respond to rapid changes in technology and human and animal growth. Our challenge is to balance societal needs, environmental quality, and sustainability.  The environmental engineer plays a central role in developing processes and practices that keep

Classification of Environmental Engineering
Mass and Energy Transfer Ecology and Biodiversity

Environment and Resources Environmental Chemistry Water Pollution Human Population and The Environment

Air Pollution Global Atmospheric Change Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

Environment and Resources
Until few decades ago the fundamental role of the environment as a resource and support system for the well-being and even survival of all of the inhabitants on this planet was not recognized as a fundamental issue by the majority of peoples and their government. They believed that only economic wealth and technological progress would bring peace and properity to individual societies. The environmentalists, on the other hand, consider uncritical technological and economical development as potentially destructive as they belive that the environment as our fundamental

P a r t i c u l a t e m i n e r a l M a t t e

Component of Environment Precipitation,
water Geosphere vapors,energy

Hydrosphere Anthrospher Atmosphere e Biosphere

B i o m a s s , N u t r i e n t s

Nutrients, Organic Matter

Classification of Resources
ØRenewable Resources
Flora, Fauna Clear-water, Clean Air, Soil,

ØNon-Renewable Resources
Water

Minerals and Ground

ØCountinuous Resources
Geothermal energy

Solar, Wind, Gravity, Tigal,

ØExtrinsic Resources
Management Ability

Human Skills, Institutions, < Back

Ecology and Biodiversity
What is Ecology?
“oikos” means “Home” or “House” “Logos” means “Study of”

refers to at Home. Defination:

- Literally the term Ecology the Study of living system

Ecology is the study of organisms in relation to their environment.

Ecosystem
Ecosystem is the structural and functional unit of ecology. Being a structural unit, an ecosystem has welldefined sub-structures and boundaries and being a function unit it acts as a medium and plateform for a number of processes required to maintain a state of equilibrium.

Component:
Abiotic The basic componets of the Ecosystem are and Biotic .

Function:
Primarily refer to the interactions between Abiotic and Biotic is the function of ecosystem.

Types:
– – – – The types of Ecosystem are; Forest Grssland Desert Aquatic

Energy Flow
The initial conservation of incoming radial energy into chemical energy by primary producers is the essential step to provide energy for all other organisms inthe ecosystem. The movement of energy from primary prducers to consumers is effected by the process of eating. In other words, energy movement will not take place without consumption of food by
sit io n on iti
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Herbivore gross production 630
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Food Chain:
Autotrophs and heterotrophs form various feeding levels in the ecosystem. These feeding levels are called trophic levels. The trophic level of photoautotrophs is called “producer level”. Similarly, the herbivores, primery and secondary carnivores occupy the primery consumer level and secondary consumer level, respectively and so on. The movement of organic matter from producer level through various consumer levels by the process of eating and being Secondar
Sun Primary consumer y consumer

Snake

Producer

Grass

Grasshopp er
Decompos er

Tertiary consumer

Hawk

Water

Fungi

Biodiversity
“The variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.” In short “ It refers to the number, variety and variation of living system.” < Back

Air Pollution
Air Quality Standered
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAADS) for major pollutants were notified by the CPCB in April 1994.These are deemed to be levels of air quality necessary with an adequate margin of safety, to protect public health, vegetation and property.The NAAQS prescribe specific standards for industrial, residential, rural, and other sesitive areas.

Sources of Air Pollution
There are many sources of the gases and particulate matter that pollute our atmosphere. Substances that emitted directly into the atmosphere are called primary pollutants, while others that are created by physical processes and chemical reactions that take place in hte atmosphere are called secondary pollutants.

Criteria Pollutants
• Given the on going focus of the air act, most of the monitoring of emissions, concentrations, and effects of air pollutionhas been directed towards the 5 criteria pollutants: Carbon monoxide(CO), Sulfur dioxide(SO2), Small particulates(PM 10), Nitrogen dioxide(NO2), and Lead(Pb). • The transportation sector accounts for a significant friction of all of the criteria pollutants except for sulfur oxides. And most of the those emission are from motor vehicles. • Nontranspotation, fossil-fuel combustion is responsible for almost 90 persent of the Sox and half of the Nox and PM 10 emitted in the United States. Most of that is released at electric power plants, and most of the power plant emission result from the combustion of coal. Although most stationary source emissions are caused by combustion of fossil-fuels, other processes, such as evaporation of volatile organic substances, grinding, and forest firea, can be important as well. Our focus, however,

• Combustion that takes place inside of home and other building to cook, heat water, and provide space heating and cooling can produce elevated levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogenoxide,hydrocarbons and respirable particulates. Cigarette smoke emits carbon monoxide, benzene, acrolein and other aldehydes and particulates, as well as about 400 other chemicals. Some copying machines emit ozone. Building materials such as particleboard, plywood, urea-formeldehyde foam insulation and various adhesives emit formeldehyde. Chipped and peeling paint containing lead becomes airborne toxic dust.

Air Pollution Management
• Augmentation and improvement of the public transport system. • Mass repid transport system to be expanded in major urban areas. • Progressive tightening of emission norms and fuel quality specifications. • Greater promotion and use of alternative fuels. • Improvement in vehical technology. • Emission standards should be strengthened for various catagories. • Support measures such as training and education for the industry, govt. agencies. etc • Non-point sources of the pollution are also to be controlled such as pollution from generator, waste < burning and the like. Back

• “Every thing has to go somewhere” is a simple way to express one of the most fundamental engineering princples. More precisely, the law of conservation of mass says that when chemical reaction tkes place, matter is neither created nor destroyed.
Input rat Output rat Decay rat Accumulatio n rat

Mass and energy Transfer

Material Balance
Boundar y

Accumulation
Input Output

Decay

Steam

Mixutur e

Waste

Energy Fundamentals
• Just as we are able to use the law of conservation of mass to write mass balane equation that are fundamental to understanding and analyzing the flow of materials, we can in a similar fashion use the first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics to write energy balance equations that will help us analyze energy flows.

This law says that “Energy can neither be created nor be distroyed But energy may change its form in any process”
E = U + K.E. + P.E.
Total energy of mass leaving system

First law of Thermodynamics

Total energy crossing boundry as heat & work

Total energy of mass entering system

Net change of energy in the system

Second law of Thermodynamics
Hot Reservoir
Heat to engine
Engin e

Hot Reservoir
Required Heat Work Output

Engin e

Work input

Waste Heat

Heat to engine

Cold Reservoir

Cold Reservoir < Back

• The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and United Nation Environment Program(UNEP) efferts on multivolume scientific assessment reports on climate changes and ozone depletion.

Global Atmospheric Change

The Atmosphere of earth
When earth was formed 4.6 billion years ago it probably had an atmosphere made up of helium and compounds of hydrogen such that early earth is thought, while the atmosphere is amde up almost of nitrogen and oxygen, other gases and particals existing in very small concentrations

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Water Pollution
• Despite being limited and considered the essence of all life on earth, water is widely treated as an infinit and expendable resouce. In addition,it is being polluted by indusrial wast, sewage, silt from eroded land and chemical wastes and nutients from agricultural runoff.These toxic substances make their way into rivers and lakes ane then enter plants, aniamls and humans.

Properties of Water
• Cosider a simple molecule of water H2O. The two hydrogen-tooxygen chemical bonds form a 105 degree angle with eachother. This property helps to explain , water’s surface tension, which allows it to support relatively heavy objects, such as insects that skate along its surface. • Density variable density (Max. At 4 Degree C) • Specific Heat 4184 J/kg C • Heat of vaporization 2258 kj/kg

Water Usage
Surface water water 76% Ground 24%

41%

39%

13%

7%

Agricultu re
Consumption 23%

Power plant
Consumption 1%

Municipa l
Consumption 3%

Industry
Consumption 1%

Return 18%

Return 38%

Return 10%

Return 6%

Total Consumption

Total Return 72%

Water Pollutants
• • • • • • • • Pathogens Oxygen-demanding Wastes Nutrients Salts Thermal Pollution Heavy Metals Pesticides Volatile Organic Compound

Water Pollutent Report

WasteWater Treatment

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Enironmental Chemistry
• Almost evey pollution problem that we face has a chemical basis.An environmental engineer who must design an emission control system or a waste treatment plant must be well grounded in chemical priciples and the techniques of chemical engineering. • When a chemical reaction is written down, it provides both qualitative and quantitative information. • The balancing of equations so that the same number of each kind of atom appears on each side of the equation and the subsequent calculation, which can be used to determine amounts of each compound

• Organic Chemistry mean the chemistry of the compounds of carbon. • Nuclear Chemistry Pu U + 4 2α + γ • Nuclear Fission

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Impacts of human interactions on
Declining Resources
Food system stress Fresh water scarcity Lossof forest & species

Natural

Ozone depletion Global warming

Altered Biogeochemistry

Unemployment Health crisis Family Breakdown

Social Disintegration

SwellingPollution Social
Refugees Urbanization Income inquity

Linkage among social, economic and
alt He h

Air Quality
al ic e om pm on lo Ec ve nt De

Education

Crime

Natural Resources use Cultural activities

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Soild and Hazardous Wast Management
Solid Wastes: are wastes that are not liquid or gaseous such as durable goods, nondurable goods, containers, and packing, food scraps, yard trimmings and miscellaneous inorganic wastes. Solid waste is more or less synonymous with the term fefuse but solid waste is the Solid Wastes
(Refuse) Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) Garbege (food waste) Other Waste (construction, automobile,indusrtialw aste)

Rubbish

Trash

Noncombustible

Source Reduction
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Green product Design strategies Product system life extension Material life extension Material selection Reduced material intensiveness Process management

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Special Thanks Mam Asia Rehman & All of YOU also Seniour (Adil Noshairwan)

Editer & Composed BY Muhammad Arslan

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