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ING.

ANDRÉS VELASCO, MSc

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
 Paracelsus (1493-1541)

 “Every substance is toxic, there is not even one that isn´t”  “Dosis sola facit venenum”
 “The dose is what

makes the difference between poison and remedy.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
 Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714)  He is called the “father of occupational medicine”  “When you get to the bed of your patient ask him what he does for a

living to see if his job is the cause of his disease”.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
 James Marsh (17941896)  British scientist that created the analytic method to detect and validate arsenic, known as the “Mars Test”.

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCED POLLUTION GROWTH THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  At the end of the XVIII Century there was a breakpoint in pollution related topics. .

. biologic and atomic bombs during World War II. phosgene. mustard gas are used during World War I.FACTORS THAT INFLUENCED POLLUTION GROWTH WAR  Tear gas.  Use of chemical. chlorine.

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCED POLLUTION GROWTH CHEMICALS PRODUCTION  Pesticides  Medicines and pharmaceutical products  Chemical and industrial products  Drugs .

CHEMICAL DISASTERS .

.TOXICOLOGY  TOXICOLOGY CONCEPT (BALLANTYNE 1999) Science that studies the interaction between chemical agents and biological systems. in order to quantitatively determine the potential of the chemical agents to cause damage in living organisms.

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Inter disciplinary science that studies the negative effects of the chemical agents in biological systems. .

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY ACTION MECHANISM TOXIC STUDIES DIAGNOSE PREVENTION INTOXICATION TREATMENT .

.MAIN CONCEPTS XENOBIOTIC AGENT  Chemical substance that is not a natural component of the exposed organism.  Synonyms: Strange substance or compound Exogenous substance or compound.

.MAIN CONCEPTS TOXIC  Chemical substance capable of causing damage to a biological system. affecting its functions or causing death under certain exposure conditions.

.MAIN CONCEPTS TOXIC CONTAMINANT  The forms of matter that exceed natural concentrations in a certain moment and system. causing damages and negative effects on it. TOXICITY  Chemical substance self capacity to produce negative effects on a living organism.

V VOCs PCBs Pesticides.Ni.TOXIC COMPONENTES IN A CONTAMINANT AGENT HEAVY METALS Cd.Cu.Cr. Virus .Fe.Mo. Dioxins y Furans ORGANIC COMPOUNDS PATHOGEN MICROORGANISMS Fecal Coliforms. Hg.Mn.Co.Sn.Pb.Zn.Se. Helmints. Nematods.

SOURCES OF HEAVY METALS Fire NATURAL Volcanic Activity Agriculture practices Mine exploration ANTHROPOGENIC Industrial processes Car pollution .

Hg. Ca.HEAVY METALS  The main exponents: O. . Fe. can be accumulated up to toxic levels. sometimes they represent up to 99% of the total composition of a substance (the rest is called “traces”). include:  They are took by plants and animals in small amounts and  Methalic elements with 6 g/m3 in free state. They  Essential elements with non-toxic effects such as Iron. Al. such as : Cu. K. Ti y P.  Essential elements in low concentrations and toxic in high concentrations.  Toxic elements (traces) such as: Cd. Mg. Ni. Si. Zn. Pb.

 Intoxication / death .  Reduces performance or quality of vegetal production.HEAVY METALS´ EFFECTS  Eventhough we asume that heavy metals have a pretty high level of toxicity.  Phisiological changes in animals and plants. their hazard and risk manifest just when absorption and accumulation in the organism exceeds certain limits considered as phisiologically acceptable.

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY TOXICITY OF A SUBSTANCE: CAPACITY OF A SUBSTANCE TO CAUSE DAMAGE OR DEATH IN A LIVNG ORGANISM VERY TOXIC: LITTLE DSE EFFECTS NOT VERY TOXIC: GREAT DOSE EFFECTS .

THRESHOLD EFFECTS: The effects are shown when the amount exceeds certain limit. . it depends on the characteristics of the substance and the system. INTERACTION EFFECT: When two or more substances interact. either in a chemical way (resulting in another substance). or in a biological way (causing effects that they couldn´t cause by themselves).ENVIONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY ACCUMULATIVE EFFECT: When the adverse effects are unperceptible and the addition of these little effects show their signs when they are irreversible.

CONTAMINANT CYCLE IN THE ENVIRONMENT  BIO-CONCENTRATION: Highest chemical concentration found in the living organism compared to the concentration found in the environment.  BIO-MAGNIFICATION: Pogressive increase of the substance concentration as it gets transfered through the food chain. .

. chemical and biological changes throughout time. of a contaminant  Decomposition process of the substance in physical environments through biological systems.CONTAMINANT CYCLE IN THE ENVIRONMENT PERSISTENCE IN THE ENVIRONMENT:  It refers to the physical.

The gas.CONTAMINANT CYCLE IN THE ENVIRONMENT 1. sediments. water. soil.  . liquids and solids movement takes place in the envronment through air. plant and animals. MOVEMENT:  Complex and not very known process that depends on the chemical and physical properties of the substance and in the characteristics of the environment.

the lighter ones tend to stay on the surface. the easiest for the environment to bio-degradate it.  STEAM PRESSURE: The volatility degree of the chemical.2. CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION AND BIOLOGICAL  WATER SOLUBILITY: It establishes the substance capability to migrate in the envorinment.  DENSITY: The fluids that are more dense than water penetrate and go to te bottom of the water body. . PHYSICAL. if the substance is more soluble.

ACCUMULATION IN TWO OR MORE SITES  PRECIPITATION RATE: High precipitation rates and very water-soluble contaminants contribute to their degradation or migration to other sites.CONTAMINANT CYCLE IN THE ENVIRONMENT 3. . and the chemical´s  WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION: Influences in dust generation and contaminants migration.  TEMPRATURE: This variable influences in steam pressure. water solubility movement in the ground.

. it depends on the concentration and the time.MAIN CONCEPTS EXPOSURE  It´s a measure of the contact between the chemical agent and the living organism.

.MAIN CONCEPTS ROUTS OR WAYS OF EXPOSURE  Is the path that a chemical agent follows in the environment from the place where it is liberated up to the point when it makes contact with the population or the exposed individual.

respiratory) Occasional Exposure (oral) Medicines Food (accidents. cosmetic uses) .EXPOSURE ROUTES Water Air Human Income of Chemical agents Occupational Exposure (oral.dermic.

HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOXIC AGENTS 1. SEVERAL SOURCES: PLUMBUM . FORMS:  ONE AGENT.

HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOXIC AGENTS 1. FORMS:  ONE SOURCE. SEVERAL AGENTS: COMBUSTION GASES PESTICIDES FERTILIZERS .

SEVERAL AGENTS MERCURY PLUMBUM TOBACCO . FORMS:  SEVERAL SOURCES.HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOXIC AGENTS 1.

EXPOSURE ROUTS .

ACUTE EXPOSURE .

CHRONIC EXPOSURE .

. caused by toxic substances exposure.MAIN CONCEPTS EFFECT  Any deviation of the normal performance of the organism.

ACUTE EFFECT .

CHRONIC EFFECT .

Toxicodynamics  WHAT DOES THE BODY INCOMING SUBSTANCES?  ABSORPTION  DISTRIBUTION  STORAGE DO WITH THE  METABOLISM O BIOTRANSFORMATION  DISPOSAL / ELIMINATION .

TYPES OF EFFECTS  Reversible Effect  Irreversible Effect  Acute Effect  Chronic Effect  Local Effect  Systemic Effect .

which is evidenced by clinic signs and symptoms or through laboratory tests.MAIN CONCEPTS INTOXICATION  Pathological process caused by exposure to endogenous or exogenous chemical substances. .

MAIN CONCEPTS DOSE:  The total amount of a substance that the organism is exposed to. .  Usually the dose refers to the total amount of a material that penetrates an organism using some of the specific exposure routes.

LETHAL DOSE:  Dose that produces death. DL100 ( Lethal dose 100) DL50 (Lethal Dose 50) .MAIN CONCEPTS TOXIC DOSE:  Dose that produces some toxic effect.