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Environmental Management

• Optimal utilization of the finite resources between different possible uses. • Environmental criteria and economic considerations demand that such an allocation be efficient. (protection from degradation &protection for scarce and diminishing resources)

• Its an attempt to control human impact on and interaction with the environment in order to preserve natural resources • Environmental management focuses on the improvement of human welfare for present and future generations. • Administrative functions that develop, implement, and monitor the environmental policy of an organization. • The process of environmental degradation was accelerated with the development of socio-economic activities,

as for example, agriculture, industrialization, drugs and pharmaceuticals, transport, civil construction including roads and buildings etc., with growing population the requirement of foodgrains and other consumer items increased stupendously, leading to further environmental degradation.

Environment management is the process of allocating natural and man-made resources so as to make optimum use of the environment in satisfying not only the existing basic human needs but of the coming generations also. This management implies an element of conscious choice from a variety of alternative proposals and furthermore that such a choice involves purposeful commitment for recognized and desired objectives.

• Thus environmental management is a field of study dedicated to understanding human-environment interactions and the application of science to solving problems. . • environmental management is necessary for environmental planning which implies the optimal utilization of the earth’s resources and preservation of the quality of environment for the healthy growth of the society. A close integration with environmental planning is inescapable. on practice and coping with real-world issues rather than theoretical planning.• The focus of environmental management is on implementation. monitoring and auditing.

and It seeks to integrate natural and social science. It demands a multidisciplinary approach. . policy making and planning.The characteristic features of ENVIRONMENTAT MANAGEMENT are : It deals with world affected by humans.points. It has to integrate different development view. It supports sustainable development. The time-scale involved extends the short term and concern ranges from local to global .

(Downey. 1999) “Environmental management – a generic description of a process undertaken by systems oriented professionals with a natural science. . the complex boundary where biophysical and socio-cultural systems interact”. tackling problem of human altered environment on an interdisciplinary basis from a quantitative and/or futuristic viewpoint”. social science or less commonly. an engineering . 1970) “An approach which goes beyond natural resources management to encompass the political and social as well as the natural environment”.law or design background.“Environmental management is concerned with the manenvironment interface. 1989). (Clarke. (Hare.

• To develop a strategy for the improvement of quality. • To develop research institutions and monitoring systems. • To suggest measures for resource conservation. • To establish limits.SIGNIFICANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT • Environmental Management is an approach which integrates Ecology. • To suggest long-term and short-term policies for sustainable development. Policy making. Its main objectives are as follows: • To prevent and solve environmental problems. • To identify new technology for future development . Planning and Social development. • To warn threats and identify opportunities.

food. materials • Intangible: Nutrient cycling.Resources • Tangible: Airflows. fuels. Degradation of residuals or wastes • Aesthetic: Scenic. water. minerals. climate regulation and removal. Recreational and other pleasing features • Renewable vs Non-renewable .

urbanization. the availability of its natural resources and the lifestyle of its population. .Environmental problems of a country are affected by the level of its economic development. In India. poverty. rapid growth of its population. industrialization and several related factors are responsible for the rapid degradation of the environment.

threat to biodiversity and inadequate system of solid waste disposal and sanitation with consequent adverse impact on health. The main environmental problems in India relate to air and water pollution particularly in the metropolitan and industrial zones. and can no longer be neglected. . degradation of common property resources which affect the poor adversely due to a degeneration of their life support system.Environmental problems have become serious in many parts of the country. infant mortality and birth rate.

The degradation of natural resources imposes several problems of water. But their overall analysis is necessary not only for their understanding but also for the environmental planning in India. air. noise and soil pollution as well as their impact of human activities on environment in India is a beggar’s description. .

AIR POLLUTION .

The main sources of air pollution in India are:  Automobiles  Thermal Power Plants  Industries  Agriculture  Quarrying  Natural Processes. .

. Apart from this. ammonia. lead and fluorides.During the process of fossil fuels mainly oxides of carbon are generated. The nature of urban and rural air pollution is quite different in India. hydrocarbons. oxides of nitrogen. methane and other toxic substances including ozone. effects and remedies are also different. therefore. their respective causes. H2S. various industries also generate other pollutants such as SO2.

URBAN AIR POLLUTION .

Urban Air quality has generally deteriorated throughout the Indian cities. Quality of Indian cities as some of the most polluted cities in the world and heading the list is the national capital: New Delhi. The reasons are rising number of motor vehicles. especially poorly maintained vehicles and growing industrialization without any priority for pollution abatement. .

The percentage of vehicular population in India in the six metros has been depicted below on the next slide. Between 1986 to 2000.The single most important factor responsible for this deterioration of air quality is the exponential increase in petrol and diesel fueled vehicles. the number of vehicles on Indian roads has increased from 11 millions to 36 millions. Of these 70% are two and three-wheelers with inefficient and highly polluting two-stroke engines. .

87 13.14 8.46 542 391 872 549 254 245 244 162 156.96 135.88 0.51 14.Name city Suspended particular matter Sulphur dioxide Oxide of nitrogen Hydrocarbons CO Total Delhi Mumbai Bengaluru Kolkata 8.85 45.46 Pune Chennai Hyderabad Jaipur Kanpur Lucknow Nagpur Gr.58 4.98 0.o1 .90 0.47 3.03 12.60 674.41 105.57 56.04 0.62 0.95 1.05 46.47 3.04 2.02 29.46 29.53 18.07 1.79 0.17 65.42 36.24 352.99 1.73 40.2 119. Total 1.0 42.75 13.02 21.71 7.36 1.74 11.42 1.35 213 188 169 75 75 70 48 299 105.95 0.34 24.14 42.16 1916.18 2.98 90.28 Ahemedabad 2.33 207.68 1.58 33.38 59.50 23.87 149.94 17.66 2.35 41.07 4.49 18.39 61.30 1.

irrespective of any environmental consideration.348 Mechanical workshops. Similar is the story of other cities in In airdia. 531 Textile industries and 3. Most of the cities are located near cities. there is a large concentration of chemical units with 30 Km of Mumbai. In addition. there are 32 factories processing rubber or plastic products. . Most of these industries have become a main cause of air pollution.Industries are also responsible for the air pollution in India. Besides. For example. Mumbai has above 523 Chemical industries.

Coal based thermal plants have been set up for power generation and are responsible for air pollution through gaseous emissions of Sulphur Dioxide. Nitrogen oxide etc. fly-ash and bottom ash. vegetation and aquatic life of the region and also produces huge amount of solid wastes. Air pollution can also cause acid-rain which not only adversely affects man but it is also responsible for damage of soil. .

Air pollution is the main cause of respiratory illness and death. life in big cities of India has become intolerable and has created health problems.Due to air pollution. . physical damage and loss of vision.

RURAL AIR POLLUTION .

. i.In India.e. crop residues. . animal dung or wood. This provides 80% of rural energy for cooking. Air pollution due to biofuels are largely released directly where people are inside or near households at mealtimes everyday. Gradually. rural population uses substantial quantities of non-commercial fuel. their use is decreasing as a percentage of total fuel consumption or in terms of per capita use.

Several health effects are suspected to arise due to smoke such as respiratory infection to children.Although the emissions are relatively modest. . for women exposed during pregnancy. the actual exposure to people is significant in many millions of households around the country. chronic lung diseases and lung cancer in adults and still birth.

. • Good ventilation to houses. • Providing bio-gas facilities and • The habits and attitude of rural people be changed. Awareness has to be generated.The Rural Air pollution can be reduced by: • Providing an affordable clean fuel for substitute to biofuels. • Installation of efficient smokeless burners.

WATER POLLUTION .

. springs. The available water is also polluted in some way or the other. lakes and ponds. including increasing population.Once admired for its beautiful water resources. deforestation and the resultant soil erosion and flawed water management. India has over the years progressively depleted its supply of water due to various factors. thoughtless urbanization. Surface water resources mainly include rivers.

Sewage . Industrial effluents. Oil pollution and. The major sources of water pollution in the country are: • • • • • • • Domestic effluents. Thermal pollution. Agricultural effluents.The problem of water resources in India is increasing day by day. Pollution created by Radio-active elements. .

52 have partial system and 82 do not have any sewage disposal system.Water pollution from domestic and human waste water causes many severe water-borne diseases. only eight have proper sewage system. Sewage effluents from cities dotting the river’s bank contribute to nearly three-fourths of the water pollution. . According to a recent survey out of 142 big cities of India.

RIVER POLLUTION IN INDIA .

and the peninsular. east coast and the West coast river systems in the south. India have five major river systems. . As assessed by the scientists of the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute. Nagpur. Almost every river system in India is now polluted to a great extent.• Water pollution in India has now reached a crisis point. nearly 70% of water in India is polluted. the Brahmaputra and the Indus river systems in north. namely. the Ganga.

A few remedies to control water pollution are suggested hereunder: 1. 4. The sewage and water treatment plant should be established. 3. Adequate sewage disposal facilities should be developed so that sewage is not directly released into the water stream. Industries should enforce standards for water effluents. The Pollution Control Boards must enforce the laws. . 2.

For small and medium size industries combined treatment plant should be established. . A pollution tax should be imposed especially for industries responsible for water pollution. 6.5.

SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL .

The solid waste generation is increasing day by day not only in the big cities of India but also in small towns and has become a threat to environment. The composition and quantity of waste changes with increase in per capita income. The main change in solid waste material has been with the increased use of plastics and other synthetic materials in place of the bio-degradable organic materials. The slid waste includes domestic and municipal waste and agricultural wastes. west created by mining and also radio-active waste. The composition of solid wastes in 5 big cities of India has been given in the next slide: .

00 Plastic 0.00 44.65 0.20 Others 47.85 1.Cities Non.35 2.00 40.29 1.00 34.1 Page 8 .88 4.00 10.00 • Source: Potential for energy generation from Wastes in India: Bioenergy News: Vol 1 No.00 Metal 0.33 3.34 1.00 36.81 78.00 35.18 6.2 Ash 34.Degradable Characteristics(%) Paper Kolkata Delhi Nagpur Bengaluru Mumbai 3.00 41.00 2.57 1.66 1.42 15.6 Glass Earth 0.38 0.00 0.21 1.

The status of solid waste collection in selected cities is given on the next slide: . it attracts rodents and flies hich spread diseases and also pollute water and cause land degradation.• When this solid waste is not collected and disposed of efficiently and effectively.

20 0.15 0.29 0.31 0.• Cities Mumbai Delhi Madras Bengaluru Lucknow Varanasi 0.44 0.16 0.10 0.14 Solid Waste Generated (Mt) Collection % 90 77 90 96 74 87 Hubli-Dharwad Mysore Gulbarga Tumkur 0.13 89 60 40 50 • Source: World Resources: 1996-1997: 154 .26 0.

. Therefore. development of suitable technologies for utilization of wastes is essential to minimize adverse health and environmental consequences.• These wastes are left untreated. they ferment slowly and produce biogas that contains 65 to 75 per cent methane gas which is a GREEN HOUSE GAS.

DEFORESTATION .

But due to industrialization. forest cover is fast disappearing.• Forests have a many faced ecological role to play which affects human life in a variety of ways. They also protect a vide variety of flora and fauna. commercialization. They thwart the dangers of cloud drifting. provide recreation and can effectively control air pollution of moderate magnitudes. soil erosion. wind erosion and ground water evaporation. . floods. growth of population habitat and expansion of agriculture in India.

India has a forest area measuring only to 19.5% of the total land area as against 33% of the National Forest Policy of 1988. Even in protected forests unprecedented changes are going on. Actually the closed type of forest having forest cover density of 40% or more is approximately only 11% of the country’s land area. . A large part of these forests are degraded and productivity is very poor.

SOIL DEGRADATION .

5 cm of a soil layer. sandy areas. . in India.In India. it takes almost a thousand years to form only 2. deserts and water logging(Government of India 1989. The soil formation is a very long process and under favorable conditions. shifting cultivation.30 million hectares of land (45% of total geographical area) is affected by serious soil erosion through ravine and gully. about 1. cultivated waste lands.

traditional agricultural practices. construction of roads and other activities lead to the opening of soil erosion. .It is reported that the loss of one mm of cultivated soil could cost 10 kg. In desert regions of Rajasthan. of nitrogen and 2 kg. of phosphorus. while cutting trees for firewood and timber. wing erosion causes heavy soil erosion and drifting of sand. Soil erosion by rain and river that takes place in hilly areas causes land slides and floods.

ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING IN INDIA .

have been considered as sacred in one form or the other. trees. There was a general public opinion to protect all these as a part of religious activity. soil. land. animals etc. rivers. .India is a country where all the components of environment have been considered as life support systems from ancient times and their protection has been of paramount importance. The air. water. mountain. vegetation.

. gradually. with the growth of population. environmental problems have developed. especially during the present century. industrialization.Although at that time there was no problem of environment because of limited population and of simple pattern of life. urbanization as well as growth of other economic activities. a planning strategy is necessary. therefore.

431 and 432 are related with environment. 291. some laws have been enacted for the protection of environment. 426. Article 277 was related with water pollution and 278 with Air pollution. 430. Articles 268. In Indian Penal Code of 1860. Even before independence. . 290. Similarly.For the protection of environment and to control pollution several measures have been undertaken both by government and NGOs.

1938. The act and laws passed during last 60 years. serious efforts have been made in the form of legislation for the conservation and protection of the environment. The following are the important Acts: .In Motor Vehicles Act. is a major step for the protection of environment in India. there was a provision to control pollution and Indian Forest Act was passed in 1927. After independence.

The act and laws passed during last 60 years. The following are the important Acts: .In Motor Vehicles Act. After independence. serious efforts have been made in the form of legislation for the conservation and protection of the environment. is a major step for the protection of environment in India. there was a provision to control pollution and Indian Forest Act was passed in 1927. 1938.

9. Factories Amendment Act 1987. 8. 6.1. River Board Act 1956. 7. . 4. Environmental Protection Act 1986. Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989. 3. Radiation Protection Rules 1971. 2. Water Preservation and Control of Pollution Act 1974 and 1977. Damodar Valley Corporation (Prevention of pollution of water) Regulation act 1984. Wild Life Protection Act 1972. Atomic Energy Act 1972 5.

Article 48-A imposes a duty on the States “to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country”. Article 51A(g) imposes a duty on citizens of India “to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. in 1977 a major step in this direction has been taken in the form of 42nd constitution amendment. . Accordingly. rivers and wild life and to have compassion for living creatures”.Above all. lakes.

The establishment of the Ministry of Environment and Forest in November 1980 is another step towards environment protection and also for policy making and planning. In the country. . Similarly. The Central Pollution Board has been established to take measures to control water and air pollution. national laboratories. every State government has established a Ministry of Environment. IITs and University departments and several other autonomous bodies are engaged in research in the field of environment.

CHAPTER – 4 .

ISO 14000 EMS CERTIFICATION .TOTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT.

Customers all over the world and at all times demand that they be assured and satisfied that the product or services as anticipated. inspection is not a satisfactory way of giving assurance that the product will perform as desired during its life. demand for better quality services and products also increases.As the quality of life improves. However. . It is generally agreed that the required level of quality can be built into the product only through the use of a proper quality management system.

EMS: ISO 14000 The International Environmental Standards are intended to provide organizations with the elements of an effective environmental system. which can be integrated with other management requirements to assist organizations to achieve of an environmental management system to support it to cover the following major areas: .

4.1. 3. . 2. Environmental Management System Environmental auditing Environmental Labeling Environmental Performance Evaluation Life Cycle Assessment. 5.

liabilities. .ISO 14000 builds a single global management system that allows effective management of environmental responsibilities. 2. costs. document commitment to governmental management system (EMS) and proper guidelines cost the company in the following areas: 1. to address the literally thousands of environmental regulations in India and the countries in which business transactions take place. In disabled administrative staff. Missed opportunities to reduce energy consumption and material waste.

Poor public image and loss of opportunities to describe the who products to those who prefer to buy environmental friendly products.4. Loss of confidence by stockholders and financial institutions which are not sure of environmental risk factors. 5. . 6. Fines and penalties through government audits because its environmental aspects are out of compliance.

. health and safety. and company’s image of giving thrust to areas of environmental importance.The task of management is to control internal costs and maximize market opportunities by enhancing the product. such as quality.

the Environmental Protection Agency has developed what is called “ Project XL” which (Excellence in LEADERSHIP) is an effort that allows companies with demonstrated leadership in pollution control to operate under lower requirements that the law provides. with the company’s assurance that it will strive to go beyond current standards. In the United States.ISO 14000 is a way of empowering businesses to take control of environmental responsibility and encouraging government departments to approach the challenge with far greater flexibility. .

it can bring about a lot of changes in the present Indian scenario.” ISO 14001 Certification is an initiative to bring about uniformity in environmental compliance standards to reduce impediments to trade among countries. If it is accepted and implemented properly.ISO 14000 does not only relate to massive global companies. cultural and social conditions. The standard states “It has been written to be applicable to all types and sizes of organizations and to accommodate diverse geographical. .

This series emerged primarily out of the Uruguay Round of the GATT negotiations and the RIO Summit on the environment held in 1992. .ISO 14000 series of standards are designed to cover the whole of environmental issues for organizations in the global market place. the RIO Summit generated commitment to protection of the environment across the world. While GATT concentrates on the need to reduce nontariff barriers to trade.

Germany and Japan) have introduced ecolabeling programmers. The British Standards Institution has BS 7750. eco-labeling and audit regulation and many other countries (USA. auditing.The environment field has seen a steady growth of national and regional standards. . the Canadian Standards Association has environmental management.

. They formed the Strategic Advisory Group on Environment (SAGE) in 1991.After the increase of environmental standards around the world. ISO assessed the need for International environmental standards. to consider whether such standards could serve to be effective instruments of pollution control.

NEED FOR THE NEW STANDARDS .

At present many countries and regional groupings are generating their own requirements for environmental issues.A set of international standards. A single standard will ensure that there are no conflicts between regional interpretations of good environmental practice. The existence of these standards allow organizations to focus their environmental on the basis of internationally accepted criteria. safer. which bring world-wide focus on the environment. . and these vary between the groups. healthier world for all of us. encourage a cleaner.

The fact that companies may need environmental management certification to compete in the world market place could easily overshadow all ethical reasons for environmental management. Within Europe many organizations gained ISO 9000 registration. .

1992, on the basis of SAGE recommendations, a new committee TC 207, International Environmental Management Standards were created. Industries, Standards organizations, governments and environmental organizations represented this committee from many countries. The new series of ISO 14000 are designed to cover:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Environmental Management Systems Environmental auditing Environmental Performance Evaluation Environmental Labeling Life Cycle Basement Environmental aspects in products standards.

ISO 14000 is a group of standards encompassing the following areas:  Environmental Management Systems (14001, 14002, 14004)  Environmental Auditing (14010, 14011, 14012)  Evaluation of Environmental Performance (14031)  Evaluation labeling (14020, 14021, 14022, 14023, 14024, 14025)  Life Cycle Assessment (14040, 14041, 14042, 14043)

EMS CERTIFICATION PROCESS

costs and benefits. .  Top management commits to the EMS process.  The Project Committee prepares a briefing for top management describing ISO 14000. the EMS registration.Creating an EMS involves the following sequential steps:  Establish a project committee to the EMS process.  Perform a gap analysis to determine how well the organization meets the ISO 14000 requirements and what will it take to meet them.

Present results of gap analysis to the management and receives approval for continuation of the process. .  Design a procedure to identify the environmental aspects of the operation.  Identify the environmental aspects and impacts.  Present a draft environmental policy with the top management participation.

 Create environmental objectives and targets for each relevant function and level in the organization. . Design a procedure to identify the legal and other requirements of the organization.  Establish a program for achieving targets and objectives.  Identify the legal and other requirements.  Present the EMS to the top management for approval.

 Policy and EMS are implemented and an audit function is established.  Organization applies for certification by the external auditors. Top management accepts the EMS. .  Final Gap Analysis is performed to determine if the organization is ready for registration audit. Audit.

.Organizations are registered by the outside auditors or “Registrars” for meeting the ISO 14000 standard. for several sites or for the entire company. The registration can be for the specific company site.

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