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Pressure Measurement


Fluid Mechanics SCB 23304

• • • • Introduction What is Pressure? Why measure Pressure? Measuring Devices -Ultra Low Pressure Sensors -Low Pressure Sensors -Medium Pressure Sensors -High Pressure Sensors -Calibrating -Elastic Deformation Sensors

• Pressure is a normal force exerted by a fluid over a surface area • Absolute, Gage, Vacuum Pressure • Static & Dynamic Pressure • Pa, Bar, atm, Psi

forces • Quality and Safety of Operation: -Tire. etc • Pressure measurements is used in various general. compressors.WHY MEASURE PRESSURE? • Pressure negates the properties of a fluid: -State. flow. industry and research applications .

INDUSTRY APPLICATION -Drilling Technology utilize pressure sensors for real time downhole data transfer -Weather forecasting -Medicine -Aviation -Pressure Vessels .

Sphygmomanometer Fluid Manometer .

>Ultra Low Pressure Sensors .

.• Also known as Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) • Pressures below 100 nPa (10~9 torr) • Extreme conditions so require extensive measures to ensure accuracy. No one single pump is capable of operating from standard pressure to UHV so need several. -Minimal Surface area -Outgassing. Construction materials absorb other chemicals. It’s include: -High Speed Pumps. -Extremely Clean. -Seals – Need special metal seals to prevent trace leakage.


• Uses for UHV generally revolve around research: -X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) ~Analyze the composition. -Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TPD) ~Measure adsorption binding energy. -Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) ~ Analyze the density and distribution of electrons. -Particle accelerators -Atomic Physics Experiments involving ‘cold atoms’ . -Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) ~Measure the composition of thin films and solids. -Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) ~Used to study surfaces for material sciences. chemical and electrical state within a material.

. • Mustn’t contaminate environment • Only concerned with gases.ULP SENSORS • Types of ULP Sensors -Ionisation Gage -Knudsen Gage -Alphatron • ULP Requires specialised sensors: -High Precision & accuracy. -Indirect Pressure Measurement – measure some property of the vacuum rather than the vacuum itself.

>Low Pressure Sensor The Mcleod Gauge Pirani Gauge .

THE MCLEOD GAUGE • Sensitive to condensed vapors • Measures pressures for 0. Example of The Mcleod Gauge . but the McLeod Gauge is often used to calibrate them.0013 to 13. • Absolute Pressure below 133 Pa when using The Mcleod Gauge.3 Pa • Electronic vacuum gauges are now more common.

PIRANI GAUGE • Measures thermal conductivity of a gas • Range of pressure is between 0.1 to 100 Pa Schematic of Pirani gauge Pirani gauge arrangement to compensate for change in ambient temperature .

>Medium Pressure Sensors Barometer Manometer .

BAROMETER • One common application of the manometer is the barometer • The barometer measures atmospheric pressure • This barometer uses a reference gas separated from the atmosphere by a liquid • If the atmospheric pressure changes. the reference gas expands/contracts • Static pressure gauge Basic barometer .

unsuitable for very large pressures Basic manometer .MANOMETER • The manometer consists of a tube filled with liquid of known density. • A pressure difference across the tube causes the liquid to shift position • The change in position can be measured to give the pressure • Best suited to static pressure measurement • Difficult to use for small pressure changes.


Con’t… .

>High Pressure Sensors Bourdon-tube Gauge Schrader Gauge .

moving the pointer via mechanical links • Measures static pressure Commercial Bourdon tube gauge .BOURDON-TUBE GAUGE • Invented by Eugene Bourdon in 1849 • Can be used to measure pressures up to 100.000 psi • Uses an elastic tube as its primary element • The tube straightens out with increasing pressure.

SCHRADER GAUGE • Uses a piston connected to a spring • Simple & sturdy construction • Not particularly accurate • Common use is in simple tyre pressure gauges • Performs better than bourdon-tube under dynamic loads .

>Calibration of Pressure Sensors .

1% range • Allows pressure tests up to 10kBar (~145.005% to 0.CALIBRATION • The most common way to calibrate pressure sensors is with a dead-weight tester • Has accuracy in the 0.000 psi) .


>Elastic Deformation Sensors  Bellow Gauges  Diaphragm Gauge  Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor  Linear Variable Differential transformer (LVDT) pressure transducers  Bridgman Gauge .

• Either electrical or mechanical output. . • Doesn't work well with dynamic pressures due to mass and large displacements.BELLOW GAUGES • Uses the elastic deformation of a convoluted unit which expands and contracts with changes in pressure.

DIAPHRAGM GAUGE • Uses the elastic deformation of a flexible membrane that separates two different pressures. . • The deformation of the diaphragm is dependent on the difference in pressure between the two faces.

Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor • Piezoresistive consist of a silicon diaphragm with a semiconductor strain gauge bonded to the diaphragm.Good linearity at constant temperature. • Advantages: .High sensitivity . .

.LINEAR VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMER (LVDT) PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS • The motion of a diaphragm sensed by a Linear Variable Differential Transformer or (LVDT).

4%Ni). • The total resistance of the wire is about 100Ω and is usually employed in a Wheatstone bridge. . • Resistance can respond to variations in pressure in the megahertz range. 12%Mn. • Accuracy of 0.1% • Such gauges require frequent calibration.BRIDGMAN GAUGE • The wire is typically Manganin (84% Cu. • Resistance is less affected by temperature change.