Critical Thinking

Topic 1 Introduction to Critical Thinking

Introduce yourself: One min. 1. Say something about yourself: What you like to eat, see, dream of; ambition or what you dislike …etc 2. Ask a question of either me or anyone else in the room or just make a comment on things that are going on around you etc.


 What is thinking?  Is thinking an activity that is done automatically or one that we can direct?  Is daydreaming a kind of thinking?  Can thinking skills be acquired? (Ruggeiro p 3) 3 .

(Ruggeiro p. make a decision.4) 4 . It is a searching for answers. a reaching for meaning. What is Thinking? Thinking is any mental activity that helps formulate or solve a problem. or fulfill a desire to understand.

4) 5 . What mental activities are included in the thinking process?  careful observation  remembering  wondering  imagining (all work in  inquiring combination)  interpreting  evaluating  judging (Ruggeiro p.

A typical Malaysian classroom scenario? 6 .

What is Critical Thinking? 7 .

‖ Critical thinking is the general term given to a wide range of cognitive skills…needed to effectively  identify  analyse arguments and claims  evaluate  overcome personal prejudices  formulate and present convincing reasons in support of conclusions  make reasonable.Critical Thinking  ―Critical‖  here does not mean ―negative. intelligent decisions about what to believe and what to do 8 * .

Why should students be taught critical thinking?  9 .

 Critical Thinking is disciplined thinking governed by Clear Intellectual Standards 10 .

Many people fail to express themselves clearly perhaps out of laziness. you must express yourself clearly.Critical Thinking Standards  Clarity: That which is true should be expressed clearly. carelessness. Baasham p2) 11 . If you want others to understand what you say. (Ref. poor understanding or lack of skill.

I’m sorry I am late in passing up my assignment. I would like a raise in my pocket money because I need to buy some books soon. ―Papa. 4. 2.Q3: Examine the statements below and say in what way they are unclear?     1. ―Mr. you were late this week. I want to become successful in future and make a name for myself. and twice the last month. I will be reporting you to the office soon. 3.Ang. 12 . I will pass it when I finish it. Raymond.

Then there will be no confusion. Insist on specific definitions and specific questions. ―Is having an abortion ever moral? 13 . Why? ―Is abortion wrong?‖ “Should abortion be made legal?.” Good question because it is specific and not vague like „wrong‟ or „moral. Q4:Which of the questions below is a good question.Critical Thinking Standards  Precision: Pay close attention to detail.

the store manager told me off. I am writing this complaint to you as a consumer. 14 . When I returned the toaster and asked for a refund. This is not right.Q5: Study the texts and rewrite in a precise manner. I bought a toaster two weeks ago at the Maju Store it has not worked well.

please? 15 . Mother: With whom? Son: My friend. Mother: Who? Son: You don’t know. Can I have the money.       Son: Can I have RM100.please? Mother: Why? Son: Broke. Also am going out.

 Relevance: Stay focused on relevant ideas and information. 16 . Avoid making distracting statements.Critical Thinking Standards  Accuracy: Make sure your information and beliefs are true. You cannot reason correctly with false information.

Remember you scolded me last year when I was concentrating too much on football? Besides. Many teachers don’t even enter classes. So let me go to college and I will get a job earlier then my Form Six friends. Identify the irrelevancies. I will be wasting two years. Then I can help you financially. There is more emphasis on sports and club activities.  Son: Papa. I don’t want to enter Form Six because I hear it is difficult. 17 .Study the text below and say why it is not accurate.

 Practical inconsistency/hypocrisy: saying one thing and doing another. at least one of the beliefs must be false. Two kinds of inconsistency.  Logical inconsistency/irrationality: believing two things that cannot be simultaneously true. 18 . If a person holds inconsistent beliefs.Critical Thinking Standards   Consistency: Avoid contradiction.

Lee’s argument consistent? Why?    Mr. my goodness! If it’s my boss. I am always punctual and hardly take sick leave! Mrs Lee: Dear.Is Mr. tomorrow is your first day at your job. Mr Lee: Oh. Let me tell you that the most important quality of an employee is honesty and commitment to work.Lee: Son. tell her I have already left for work. 19 . See. there is a call for you.

impartial.Critical Thinking Standards  Logical Correctness: To think logically. you must draw well-founded conclusions from the beliefs you hold. Do not dismiss something just because it is new or it is contrary to something you already believe in.  Completeness: Good critical thinking is never done hastily. Fairness: Be open-minded. The conclusion must be justifiably derived from statements/premises. explore the issue. 20  . non-biased.

Shirley has better qualifications.Examine the text below from the viewpoint of logical correctness and fairness. women are so sensitive and may complain of sexual harassment at work. she will be reluctant to work late hours. 21 . I don’t want all that trouble. Employer: I prefer to employ Michael because he is a man. but being a woman. I know. Besides.

Baasham p8) 22 .  …develop a belief system that corresponds not only to the way the world is but leads to an ethical and meaningful life. So you must:  …evaluate your own beliefs and develop your set of beliefs. the main purpose of college education is not to teach you how to make a living but how to live.  …understand and evaluate the beliefs/positions/arguments of others.The Benefits of Critical Thinking In the college classroom. the workplace. and life  Contrary to popular opinion.

and life In college.The Benefits of Critical Thinking In the college classroom. you must learn to : understand the material you are studying evaluate the beliefs/arguments of others develop your own arguments on topics or issues. the workplace. 23 .

The Benefits of Critical Thinking In the workplace. you must be able to :  gather and analyze information  draw appropriate conclusions  solve problems  think creatively 24 .

25 . …behave morally. …attain personal enrichment.The Benefits of Critical Thinking In life  Specifically—in life—critical thinking helps us…     …avoid bad personal decisions. …make informed political decisions.

26 . not on preference or interest. Thinks independently (doesn’t let groups control their beliefs). will strive for truth even when it is hard to do. not comfortable ones. Values having true beliefs. Intellectual perseverance.Characteristics of a Critical Thinker         Strives for clarity and precision Sensitive to the discussed ―thinking errors‖ Intellectually honest (admits ignorance and limits) Welcomes criticisms of beliefs. open to revising basic beliefs Bases beliefs on facts.

Display your logo and describe it to others in about 2 mins. you can say why you think the contents represents you. symbols which have associations with you. In your tutorial class. get into groups of 4/5. For example. 27 .Activity – Drawing a personal logo   On a piece of paper draw a personal logo for yourself including a caption. It can be in the form of pictures. The other members can ask you questions for further clarification or even of re-interprete your logo. You can use colours if you wish to.