What is the meaning of intended curriculum?


for school mathematics instruction. and national level specify particular learning expectations. 2010) 4 . (Barbara. often delineated by grade. R. & Rhete.” these learning expectations furnish guidance regarding what should be taught and when various mathematical content and processes should receive emphasis in the school program.Jennifer M. Often called “curriculum standards. E.R. state. They also guide the development of textbooks and assessments designed to monitor school programs. Robert.R. & Bay-Williams (2003) The Intended Curriculum .R.Curriculum authorities at the local.The Intended curriculum The intended curriculum (a set of standards or learning experiences compiled by the educational community) Barbara J.J.

Intended curriculum:  refers to a set of objectives set at the beginning of any curricular plan  it establishes the goal.  it answers what the curriculum makers want to do 5 . J. and apply this content-based knowledge in meaningful ways. Dossey. probability & statistics and algebra & functions. and the immediate objectives to be accomplished. represent. the intended learning goes beyond this content to include the development of students’ abilities to understanding.The mathematical content of the mathematics curriculum falls into the general categories of number and operation. the specific purposes. However. geometry measurement.A et al (2002) Therefore.

& practices carried out in classrooms Intended Curriculum: system-wide policies. plans. skills. strategies. & attitudes Implemented curriculum: goals.Overview Attained curriculum: pupil knowledge. & goals 6 .

symbolical.Apply knowledge & skills to real world situation & represent these situation in graphical. numerical & verbal formats 7 .

CURRICULUM EVALUATION & STANDARD Curriculum Evaluation and Standards for School Mathematics – NCTM 1989 The Standards document proposed four general social goals for mathematics education: mathematically literate workers. concepts. and (5) learning to reason mathematically. (2) becoming confident in one’s own ability. attitudes. (3) becoming a mathematical problem solver. There was a shift away from a focus on desired mathematical outcomes such as skills. (4) learning to communicate mathematically. and applications to an emphasis on dispositions. lifelong learning. (Romberg. opportunity for all. In addition the Standards document also proposed five general goals for students: (1) learning to value mathematics. 1992) 8 . and beliefs about the nature of mathematical knowledge and about one’s own mathematical thinking. and an informed electorate.

the document Professional Teaching Standards for Teaching Mathematics was published in 1991 by NCTM and subsequently the Assessment Standards for School Mathematics was published in 1995. and Grades 9 -12. 9 . assessment. Grades 3 – 5.Other NCTM Standards The advocates of the NCTM standards were quick to realize the necessity of providing teachers with some guidelines for implementing the new curriculum. Grades 6 – 8. and technology. Six guiding principles were proposed in the new Standards document: equity. As such. Also. By the end of the 1990s. the three grade bands from the 1989 Standards were enlarged to accommodate four grade bands: Grades pre-K – 2. curriculum. learning. the 1989 Standards were in need of a revision and thus came the NCTM’s Principles and Standards for School Mathematics in 2000. teaching.

What Is Principles and Standards for School Mathematics? 10 .

#Serve as a resource for teachers. It aims to do the following: # Set forth a comprehensive & coherent set of learning goals.nctm. #Guide the development of curriculum #Stimulate ideas & ongoing conversations (NCTM 2000) References: http://www.Principles & standards for School Mathematics is a guide for focused. sustained efforts to improve students’ school 11 .

The process standards were not limited to specific grade bands but they cut across all of the four different grade bands. 12 . 3) communication. 5) representation. The five process standards were: 1) problem solving. 2) reasoning and proof. 3) geometry. 4) measurement. 4) connections. 5) data analysis & probability.Five content and five process standards for Pre-K–12 Mathematics. The content standards were: 1) number & operations. 2) algebra.

and presented. Trends. vii) This is a timely response today.p. However. they furnish a basis that will help us to find better ways of determining how the proper content should be selected. It is a reminder that mathematics curriculum has long been a topic of keen interest in mathematics education. Reeve in 1927 in the preface to the Second NCTM Yearbook. (Reeve 1927. arranged.Mathematics Curriculum: Issues. Some things don’t change! 13 . and Future Directions Why was mathematics curriculum chosen as a theme for the Seventy-second NCTM Yearbook (2010)? One explanation might be that mathematics curriculum— … was chosen as the central theme because of the present interest in curriculum revision. Since it should be understood that such revision ought to be a continuous process. just as it was when it was originally stated by William D. the discussions here in presented are not final. Curriculum Problems in Teaching Mathematics.


module 2011 KSSR Prinsip KSSR Bentuk Kurikulum KSSR Elemen merentas kurikulum Hasrat KSSR Organisasi Tahap 1 Mathematics year 1 2 3 Module DSKP Y1 DSKP Y2 DSKP Y3 DSKP Y4 Module Module Module Module Module 4 5 6 Organisasi Tahap 2 Perbezaan KBSR & KSSR http://www.KSSR.html 15

Why Malaysia curriculum change? 16 .

New curriculum 2016 17 .

PISA test ranking 18 .

Teachers preference . Questions exams simpler and based on figures and tables. Attitudes .many students who do not participate vigorously as I consider this assessment is not important. Format of the question . 2.Most of the teachers prioritize spending syllabus quickly and did not take students understand about the concept. 19 . A lot of questions unanswered.PISA The official explanation given on the page following the Ministry of Education outlines of the factors that cause the PISA results in lower raking: 1. Many shortcuts are used to memorize especially through drills.Malaysia ranking .more like PISA question that requires an understanding of the long text. translation and reflection of real life. 3.

It’s ok. I’m late to school. Video 11 transformation in edu 20 .

What happens when classroom doors close and math instruction begins? 21 .


The Implemented Mathematics curriculum

• Secondary School

150-200 minutes (10-13 topics)

• Primary School

180 minutes (10-13 topics)


The Implemented Mathematics curriculum

• What teachers do in the classrooms. • Teachers’ conceptions on the elements of the curriculum.


• What are the instruments that the teachers used in implementing mathematics' curriculum?


The Implemented Mathematics curriculum ?? Technology Lesson plan Professional development Textbooks Syllabus ?? 26 .

The Implemented Mathematics curriculum: Teaching • Teacher-creating lesson plan Induction Set State the objective Prior knowledge Teaching contents Assessment Guidance Activity 27 .

The Implemented curriculum • What is the teaching model that we use? 28 .

29 ."The Conditions of Learning" (1965).The Implemented Mathematics curriculum • Gagne Model.

The Implemented Mathematics curriculum • How many years that the teachers in Malaysia use this model (Gagne Model) in teaching and learning Mathematics? • Why we are bound by the Gagne Model in our teaching? • It is the best teaching model? • Why? 30 .

The Implemented Mathematics curriculum • Five main aspects in Implemented mathematics Curriculum: Mathematical reasoning Communication in Mathematics Integrations in Mathematics Problem Solving Implementation Mathematics Curriculum Technology 31 .

Problem Solving • Problem solving method that we used is Polyas’ method as the following: • i. Devise a plan • iii. Checking the solution 32 . Implement a plan • iv. Understanding the problem • ii.

and use the term Mathematics properly and accurate during presentations and writing.Communication in Mathematics • Refer to : i. reading and understanding the problems. 33 . Interpret diagrams and graphs. ii.

• Students are encouraged to predict and guess the process of finding a solution. 34 . • By using concrete.Mathematical reasoning • Reasoning or logical thinking is the basis for understanding and mathematical solutions. calculator. computer. and others.

students can see Mathematics as a comprehensive idea. • Students will be able to use mathematics in contextual learning in different fields.Relationship in Mathematics • With integration. • Mathematics in Science 35 .

• The use of computers. • Frog-VLE • Introducing iPad in the Curriculum . websites and learning packages will help the teachers in improving their pedagogical skills.Maths 36 . educational software.Technology • Technology will help students to understand and explore the concepts of Mathematics.


Attained Curriculum • Defined as achieved or learned curriculum • Refers to the curriculum outcomes based on the first two types of curriculum. the intended and the implemented. • Indicates students performance in relation to the objectives and the activities. • Considered as a product of schooling. 38 .

Attained Mathematics Curriculum • What students acquire in terms of mathematical knowledge which includes concepts and skills. 39 . the processes involved in doing mathematics and attitudes towards the subject.

Procedural Knowledge 1. Problem solving skills MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE 40 .Attained Curriculum from NCTM Standards 2. Conceptual understanding 3.

Conceptual Understanding • Students use the concepts and their presentations to discuss or classify mathematical object. 41 . • Example: they demonstrates and know about “triangle” concepts. • They used to compare and contrast objects and to form interrelationships between concepts and principles.

• Assessed with their level of skill in executing procedures correctly.Procedural Knowledge • When they select and apply procedures correctly. 42 .

c) Manipulate those relationships & communicate the results d) Use reasoning in new settings 43 .Problem solving • It requires students to : a) recognize and formulate the situation in mathematical terms b) determine which relationships are necessary & sufficient.

state assessments or National Assessment of educational Progress (NAEP). • Student performance – what student was thinking & doing when they responded to item. 44 . Seeking student work is important in assessing achievement.Attained Curriculum • Student performance – measured through large scale assessments such as standardized test.

NAEP Assessment 45 .

NAEP Assessment Example 2 : Regular student-constructed response problem & answer 46 .

Attained Curriculum Mathematics KBSR & KBSM • Overall in attained mathematics curriculum are emphasize to: a) concept building (pembinaan konsep) b) skill acquisition (pemerolehan kemahiran) c) Inculcation of positive values (penerapan nilai positif) 47 .

Mathematics KBSR & KBSM Problem solving in Mathematics Application of Technology Other Elements Communication in Mathematics Mathematical Connections Mathematical Reasoning Next 48 .

Assessment in Problem solving Back 49 .

Examples of Mathematics Communication NEXT 50 .

Another Communication in Mathematics Back 51 .

Example of Application of technology Students use computer such as Ms Excel NEXT 52 .

Students use Geometers’ Sketchpad software Back 53 .

Measured Mathematical Connections Example 1: Connecting Different Models for the Same Concept In mathematics. One of them is NOT a valid representation of what we mean by 3/4 0 ¼ ½ ¾ 1 Do you understand why? NEXT Can you express that understanding in words? . many concepts can be represented in different ways. Consider the ways of representing 3/4.

reasoning that 12 percent means 12/100. Which decimal is equivalent to 12 percent? 2. Which decimal is equivalent to .009 Back . Then connected the fraction to a decimal: 12/100 = 0.EXAMPLE Mathematical Connections Example 1: Connecting New Concepts to Old Concepts 1. which converts to 0.9 percent means 0.9/100.12 .9 percent? Connected percents to rational numbers.

such as: “Would it help to count backward from 19?” NEXT .Reasoning in Mathematics Example: 35 – 9 = The teacher can ask questions like this: “ Do you think it would help to know that 35 – 20 = 15?” “How would it help you to think of 19 as 15 + 4?” “Would it help to count on from 19 to 35?” It is also important for children to recognize invalid arguments.

Reasoning in Mathematics Example 2: ( 3. 21. 12. 6. 27. 51) Find a set of these numbers that sums to 100. 15. 42. Back .

Attained Curriculum in Mathematics KSSR 58 .

Reflect thinking What methods that can be measured students performance were implemented in new mathematics curriculum? 59 .



62 .

63 .

64 .

65 .


INTENDED FINLAND • Development of mathematical thinking.2013) SINGAPORE • The syllabuses adopt a spiral approach • • • • • • The syllabuses are guide for teacher to plan their mathematics instructional programmes Teachers are not bound the sequence of topics but ensure that the hierarchy and linkage are maintained Teachers are free to exercise flexibility and creativity when drawing up plans of work which serve as a blueprint for them to implement the instructional programme Textbooks are an essential part of the intended curriculum Produced by publishers with close guidance from curriculum specialist of the curriculum planning and development division(CPDD) at the MOE All textbooks used in schools must have the approval of the MOE 67 (National Institute of Education Singapore. and for the learning mathematical concepts • The most widely used problem-solving methods • Develop creative and precise thinking • Guide in finding and formulating problems also seeking the solutions (Finnish National Board of Education.2013) .

IMPLEMENTED FINLAND • Progress systematically and create a lasting foundation for the assimilation of mathematical concept and structures • The discipline’s concrete nature serves as an important aid in bringing together the pupil’s experiences and systems of thought with the abstract system of mathematics. • ICT are to be used to support the pupil’s learning process SINGAPORE • Closely monitored and implemented in well-resourced schools by highly trained teachers most of whom are subject specialist. • Singapore has a centralized system of education and as such has a national curriculum for mathematics • Highly influenced by various forms of testing and high stakes examinations 68 .



SINGAPORE Figure 1: The Singapore Mathematics Curriculum Framework – Pentagon Model 71 .

S curriculum design. Singapore had followed U.As we all knew that.S in ranking TIMSS and PISA? 72 . Why Singapore can defeat U.

73 .

Robert. New York: Macmillan.R.J. & Rhete. Volume 9. W. Mathematics Methods and Modeling for Today’s Mathematics Classroom:A contemporary approach to teaching grades 7-12. Trends. William David. F. A.USA. Weir.. New York: Bureau of Publications: Teachers College.). T. Romberg. Second Yearbook of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Jackson (Ed. Problematic features of the school mathematics curriculum.The national council of teachers of mathematics. In P. and Future Directions: Seventy-second Yearbook.REFERENCES Dossey. (1992).S. (2010) Mathematics Curriculum Issues. 74 . McCrone. J. E.R. Giordano.Thompson learning Inc Barbara J Reys & Jennifer M.A.(1927) Curriculum Problems in Teaching Mathematics. Handbook of Research on Curriculum (pp. 749-788). pp 120 . inc (NCTM). Columbia University.124 Reeve.D (2002). Bay-Williams (2003) Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School:The Role of Textbooks in Implementing the Curriculum Principle and the Learning Principle. October 2003. Barbara.R. ed. M. Issue 2. R. Ministry Of Education Singapore http://www. Finnish National Board Of Education http://www. L. K.National Institute Of Education.(2010).The Singaporen Mathematics Curriculum:connection To TIMSS. Timo. Finnish National Board Of Education.(2013).sg/education/ 75 .Singapore.(2010).singapore.National Institute Of Technological University.Nanyang Technologigal University. H.Toronto.The Singopore Mathematic Curriculum And Mathematical Communication.REFERENCES Yeap Ban.oph.Basic Education Reform In Finland-how To Develop The Top Ranked Education System?.Mathematics Education In Singapore. Jaguthsing.