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Principles of Photogrammetry: Stereoscopic Parallax

• Adjacent but overlapping aerial photos are called stereo-pairs and are needed to determine parallax and stereo/3D viewing

Overlapping Stereophotography • Overlapping photography • Endlap .~60% • Sidelap .~20-30% .

• In this example from a Quickbird satellite image.Relief Displacement • Even from great flying heights. tall objects can exhibit image displacement. the Washington Monument appears to lean outwards .

be radially displaced. Center of photo Edge of photo .Radial Displacement • Objects will tend to lean outward. i. • The greater the object is from the principal point. the greater the radial displacement.e. • Example: storage tanks towards the edge of photo show greater radial displacement.

Aerial Photos • Maps: Scale is constant No relief displacement • Photos: Scale varies with elevation Relief displacement .Maps vs.

.Stereoscopic Parallax • The displacement of an object caused by a change in the point of observation is called parallax. • Stereoscopic parallax is caused by taking photographs of the same object but from different points of observation.

Stereoscopic parallax Note the displacement between the top and base of the storage towers in this photo stereo-pair Line of Flight top bottom .

Relief displacement is removed creating a planimetric map. . A floating mark can be used trace specific elevations.Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments • Stereoplotters .precision instruments designed to duplicate the exact relative position and orientation of the aerial camera at the time of photo acquisition to recreate the stereomodel.

computer scanner software recreates the stereomodel and allows for digital mapping •Soft-copy photogrammtery has largely replaced opticalSoft copy mechanical systems workstation .Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments •Soft-copy photogrammetry Digital workstations .

Simulated 3-D Stereo viewing • One view displayed in red. the other perspective view in blue spatially shifted • The spatial shift is a function of the differential parallax • To visualize. use red-blue glasses NASA Mars Lander .

Electronic Distance Measurement .

unsw. .edu.gmat.unsw. devices are common today http://www.pentaxcanada.• Got its start in 1948 with Swiss device using visible light (range=40km only at night) • • Microwaves used in 1957 (range=80km)

• Electro-magnetic energy travels through the atmosphere according to the following: c/n=f l Where: c = speed of light in vacuum n = atmospheric index of refraction. 1.003 for STP f = frequency of the electro-magnetic energy l = wavelength of the energy .

co. to 10m. • The most common instruments use a “pulse” of 2 to 4 AM frequencies ranging from 150kHz to 15MHz. data storage . • This range of frequencies have corresponding “half-wavelengths” of 1.• So called “total-station” instruments package a digital theodolite (for measuring azimuth and altitude) with an EDM. and often a modem for transmitting data from the field. http://www.

private accident reconstructionists and insurance companies to take measurements of scenes. 12/19/2013 . an electronic distance meter (EDM) and software running on an external computer known as a data collector. crime scene investigators. A total station is an optical instrument used in modern surveying and archaeology as well as by police.It is a combination of an electronic theodolite (transit).

Fig. Various components of a typical TS are shown in Fig. The angles and distances are displayed on a digital readout and can be recorded at the press of a button.Salient features of modern TS TS is a fully integrated equipment that captures all the spatial data necessary for a three-dimensional position fix.6. Total station is usually operated by a surveyor assisted by a labourer or geodesist who carries the target pole to the points of detail to be surveyed. 6 Parts of Total Station 12/19/2013 .

Electronic transit – Reads and stores horizontal and vertical angles Uses EDM to measure and store the distance of points Points can be stored in the instrument using computer fig.7Total station 12/19/2013 .

VAST 19 . EDM      Electronic theodolite On-Board Micro-processor Data Collector Data Storage Prisms 12/19/2013 Abhilasha P S.

long range. IR mode has high accuracy. Personal access is required to the target point.Distance units are in metres. and measures to a specific point. 12/19/2013 20 .

Distance units are in metres Reflector less mode can measure to inaccessible points. Range up to 160m. but be careful about pointing and beam interruptions! 12/19/2013 Abhilasha P S. VAST 21 .Reflector less mode requires no prism.

The inbuilt software computes the HD and VD from the SD and the VA SD VA VD = SD * Cos(VA) HD = SD * Sin(VA) TH IH 12/19/2013 Abhilasha P S. VAST 22 .

VAST 23 .Application pre-settings F1 = Name of job F2 = Name of setup station F3 = Orientation F4 = Begin 12/19/2013 Abhilasha P S.

VAST 24 .12/19/2013 Abhilasha P S.

Advantages of Total Station Conventional instruments: over Traditional survey methods are laborious and time consuming Fully automatic electronic measurement Digital display of staff reading and distance Data storage in instrument possible Direct transfer to personal computer of data stored in instruments Online operation through integrated interface to computer 12/19/2013 Abhilasha P S. VAST 25 .

VAST 26 .  Battery life is also short. batteries and electronics both do not work well when wet. 12/19/2013 Abhilasha P S.  Loss of data is an important consideration.Disadvantages  Total stations are dependent on batteries and electronics. The LCD screen does not work well when it is cold.