Arc Welding

Chapter 2 Notes

Introduction
In arc welding, two metals are joined together by generating an electric arc between a covered metal electrode. The heat produced by the arc melts the metal which mixes with the molten deposits of the coated electrode.

Arc is powered by either 1) Direct current or 2) Alternating current The molten metal from the electrode is deposited on the base metal, and as the molten metal is deposited, a slag forms over the weld which insulates it against contaminants of the air while it cools. See figure 24, page 52

Other electrical appliances. . a short circuit results which immediately induces a sudden surge of electrical current. When the arc is struck with an electrode.Power Supply For effective arc welding. the demand for current is fairly constant. a constant current is required. with arc welding the power fluctuates a great deal.

the voltage when the welding machine is running and no welding is taking place (Ranges from 50-100) Arc Voltage.the voltage after the arc is struck (Ranges from 18-36) Arc voltage will also vary with the length of the arc.Open circuit voltage. The amount of current required for any welding operation is governed by the thickness of the work metal. It is difficult even for a skilled welder to maintain a perfectly uniform arc length. .

Ex: 30% duty cycle three minutes of welding and seven minutes of cooling.the amount of time a power supply can deliver its rated output in ten minute period.Duty Cycle. Discussion: Why do you suppose welders are designed this way? In what situations would you require a higher duty cycle? .

Polarity.power supply is a generator driven by an electric motor or gasoline engine.the electrode is negative and the workpiece is positive and the electrons flow from the electrode to the workpiece. .indicates the direction of current flow in a circuit Straight Polarity.DC Generator Direct Current.

Changing polarity is as simple as flipping a switch on the welding machine.The transformer welding machine takes current directly from a power supply and transforms it into the voltage required for welding.Reverse Polarity. Alternating Current.the electrode is positive and workpiece is negative and the electrons flow form the workpiece to the electrode. .

An AC welder transformer has a primary and secondary coil to regulate current. Creates a burst of current to the arc then for welding. the machine automatically returns to the current amount set for the job. . The primary coil receives the alternating current from the power source and creates a magnetic field. You will hear the welding machine bear down when this happens After arc is struck. When the arc is struck. a sudden burst of current is sent to start the arc.

Arc blow can be corrected by changing position of ground clamp.when impurities get into the welding area while the molten metal cools causing tiny holes in the weld.this causes the arc to wander while welding. Significantly reduces the strength of the weld and the asthetic value of the weld.One advantage of the AC welding machine is the freedom from Arc Blow. changing position of the weld piece on the workbench. Porosity. . Arc Blow.

provides operation at higher temperatures CD Rom on Arc Welding . We have these in our shop. Rectifier materials: Selenium Silicon.a rectifier is a transformer which contain an electrical device that changes alternating current into direct current.Rectifiers.

receive and dispose of electrodes easily. Always make sure the holder is connected firmly and properly to the cable. . Never lay the cable or holder down on the work piece while the welder is running. and be properly insulated.Electrode Holder Used to hold the electrode and guide it over the seem to be welded A good holder should be light to reduce excessive fatigue while welding.

it could possibly cause the cable to overheat. Ex: No growlights in classroom anymore. but if another 30’ of cable is added. . the combined resistance of the two leads reduces the current output of the machine. If then you turn the power output up. shop lights hooked direct. This concept is why OSHA is so tough on schools for extension cords etc.A 30’ lead cable of a given size may be satisfactory to carry the required current. fridge has to be unplugged .

You should not have arcing between the work and the ground Never start the arc on the ground clamp The closer the ground clamp to the work. the full potential of the circuit will fail to provide the required heat for welding. Rule of thumb: Ground clamp should never produce steam if a small drop of water is placed on it. The place where the ground clamp is connected should be clean and free of rust. .Ground Clamp Without proper grounding. the better the connection for welding.

.Protective Shield A suitable helmet or handshield is required for all arc welding. Never look at the arc from within a distance of 50 feet. Better yet. never look at it at all. An electric arc produces a brilliant light and gives off invisible ultraviolet and infrared rays which can burn the eyes and skin.

Lens Shades Shade Shade Shade Shade Shade Shade 5 6/7 8 10 12 14 Light spot welding Welding up to 30 amps Welding from 30-75 amps Welding from 75-200 amps Welding form 200-400 amps Welding over 400 amps .

Welder’s Clothing Gloves.aprons shield the welding sparks from burning through onto your clothing/skin. Helmet of appropriate lens shade . Use long sleeves that fit tightly so they do not get in the way of moving equipment Aprons.leather gloves are acceptable. etc to pick up hot metal instead of your gloves. pliers. and welding gloves are fine as well. However. use clamps.

Don’t overload the welding cables.Welding Safety Rules Be sure the welding area has a cement or masonry floor Remove all combustible materials from the work area Do not use gloves or other clothing which contain oil or grease. Never work in a damp area . Always be sure your machine is properly grounded. Be sure all power wiring is correctly installed and maintained.

.Welding Safety Rules con’t. Protect others with a screen and yourself with a protective shield. Keep firefighting equipment handy at all times. Flying sparks are a danger to your eyes. Arc rays can cause painful burns and blindness. and making adjustments. Follow the manufacturer’s rules on operating the switches. Shut off the welding machine before making repairs or adjustments to avoid shocks.

Types of Welds/Joints to be Welded Flat position Horizontal Position Vertical Position Overhead Position Fillet welds Groove welds Lap welds T-fillet welds Butt welds .

Tapping method. immediately raise the electrode a distance equal to the diameter of the electrode.Starting The Arc Scratching method. As soon as the arc is started.almost identical to the same motion as striking a match. . Usually 1/8-1/4 inch.simply tapping the electrode on the workpiece.

it can be broken loose quickly by twisting or bending it. release the electrode from the electrode holder.If an electrode does stick. You still of course can always turn off the power to the machine. If it still does not unlodge. Just don’t panic over the situation .

Setting the Current Current depends upon: The thickness of the metal to be welded The actual position of the welding The diameter of the electrode The rule of thumb: higher currents and larger diameter electrodes can be used for welding in flat positions than in vertical or overhead welding. .

Whenever the current is set too low. there will not be enough heat to melt the base metal and the molten pool will be small. The result is not only poor fusion but the deposit will pile up and be irregular in shape and aesthetically look poor as well. . the electrode will melt too fast and the molten puddle will be too large and irregular.Setting the Current Whenever the current is too high.

A current that is set too low will cause cold laps to form where the molten metal from the electrode falls on the work without sufficiently fusing or penetrating the base metal. Both these problems cause weak welds. .Setting the Current con’t Too high current may also produce undercutting. which leaves a groove in the base metal long both toes of the weld deposit. For examples turn to page 24 for diagrams.

the length of arc should be approximately equal to the diameter of the electrode. Generally. .Length of Arc If the arc is too long the metal melts off the electrode in globules which wonder from side to side as the arc wavers and does not fuse. An arc that is too short fails to penetrate sufficient heat to melt the base metal properly.

A shorter arc is usually better for vertical welding and overhead welding because you have better control of the molten pool. and polarity are correct. When the electrode. When the arc is too long. current. . heat from the arc stream is dissipated too rapidly. causing much metal spatter. A long arc sounds like escaping steam. crackling sound. a good short arc will produce a sharp.

Travel Speed Travel speed refers to the rate the electrode travels along the weld seam. The maximum welding speed is influenced by: 1) the skill of the operator 2) the position of the weld 3) the type of electrode 4) required weld penetration .

Page 25.Travel Speed Normally. If the speed is too slow. figure 40 . the metal piles up excessively and the weld bead is high and wide. the molten pool will solidify or freeze quickly trapping impurities in the weld deposit. if the speed is too fast.

.Forming the Crater As the arc comes in contact with the base metal. General rule. The size and depth of crater indicates the amount of penetration. the depth of penetration should be from 1/3 to ½ the total thickness of the weld bead. a pool or pocket is formed which is called a crater.

the metal deposited from the electrode must fuse completely with the base metal. If arc is too long. heat is not centralized enough to form the desired crater. Thus if arc is too short.For a sound weld. Fusion will result only when the base metal has been heated to a liquid state and the molten metal from the electrode readily flows into it. there will be insufficient spread of heat. .

Single & Multiple Pass Welds A single pass weld involves depositing one layer of weld metal. In welding light and moderate materials. This may require two or more layers of weld passing lapping over the other. the slag on each welded bead must be removed completely before the next layer is deposited. Multiple pass welds are when a heavier plated metal is utilized. Whenever a multiple pass weld is used. a single pass weld is usually sufficient. .

Types of Electrodes The type of electrode selected for arc welding depends upon: 1) quality of weld required 2) weld position 3) Joint design 4) welding speed 5) composition of the base metal .

Electrodes classified into 5 main groups: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) mild steel high carbon steel special alloy steel cast iron nonferrous .

Electrode “flux” materials: Electrodes are coated with: Cellulose Titanium dioxide Ferro-manganeese Cilica flour Calcium carbonate .

Purpose of the flux coating: Assist with easier arc starting Stabilize the arc Improve weld appearance and penetration Reduce spatter Protect the molten material contamination .

Identifying electrodes: Electrode requirements and specifications are determined by: 1) AWS (American Welding Society) 2) ASTM (American Society for Testing & Materials) .

000 lbs. amount of penetration) See page 31 . type of current.Electrode Classification Example Electrode number: ( E-6013) E= electric arc welding First two digits= minumum allowable tensile strength 60. Third digit stands for welding position 1=any position 2=horizontal or flat positions 3=flat position only Fourth digit represents some special characterisic: (weld quality.

Test Preparation Notes on internet web site Review guide on internet web site Assignments Questions on page 33 of your packet will be due before the test. .