# Binomial Theorem

Thus.Preliminary Binomial is an algebraic expression of two terms "Bi" in binomial refers to two objects/unknowns e. a+b is a binomial with unknowns a and b. 2x-3y is a binomial with unknowns x and y.g. binomial expansion is an expression obtained from a binomial raised to a certain power. .

Preliminary (a+b)2=(a+b)(a+b) =a2+2ab+b2 ==> binomial raised to power of 2 (a+b)3=(a+b)(a2+2ab+b2) =a3+3a2b+3ab2+b2 ==> binomial raised to power of 3 .

..... nCn a nb 0 n ( a  b)   C r a b n n r 0 r nr .n (a+b) The expansion of the binomial expression (a+b)n n 1 1 (a  b)  C0 a b  C1a b  C2 a n n n 0 n n n2 2 b  . Cn a b n 0 n n ( a  b) n   n C r a n  r b r r 0 OR (a  b) n  nC0 a 0b n  nC1a1b n 1  nC2 a 2b n  2  ..

Example 1 Expand each of the following. a) (x+y)5 b) (x+1/x)6 c) (x-√2)7 ( x  y)5 5C0 ( x)5 ( y) 0  5C1 ( x) 4 ( y)1  5C2 ( x)3 ( y) 2  5C3 ( x) 2 ( y)3  5C4 ( x)1 ( y) 4  5C5 ( x) 0 ( y)5  x 5  5 x 4 y  10 x 3 y 2  10 x 2 y 3  5 xy 4  y 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( x  ) 6  6C0 ( x) 6 ( ) 0  6C1 ( x) 5 ( )1  6C2 ( x) 4 ( ) 2  6C3 ( x)3 ( )3  6C4 ( x) 2 ( ) 4  6C5 ( x)1 ( )5  6C6 ( x) 0 ( ) 6 x x x x x x x x 1 1 1  x 6  6 x 4  15x 2  20  15 2  6 4  6 x x x ( x  2 ) 7  7C0 ( x) 7 ( 2 ) 0  7C1 ( x) 6 ( 2 )1  7C2 ( x)5 ( 2 ) 2  7C3 ( x) 4 ( 2 )3  7C4 ( x)3 ( 2 ) 4  7C5 ( x) 2 ( 2 )5  7C6 ( x)1 ( 2 ) 6  7C7 ( x) 0 ( 2 ) 7  x 7  7 2 x 6  42 x 5  70 2 x 4  140x 3  84 2 x 2  56 x  8 2 .

T3 ==> r = 2 nth term. T4= 5C3 (x)5-3 (y)3 = 10x3y2 .Common Term Common Term of (x+y)n = nCr (x)n-r (y)r 3th term. Tn ==> r = n-1 (x+y)5 .

Example 2 Find the coefficient of x-2 of (x+1/x)6 The common term  Cr ( x) 6 x 2  ( x) 6 r x 6 r  x  2 r r4 1 r ( ) x 6 r 1 r ( ) x 1 4 T5  C4 ( x) ( ) x  15 x  2 6 2  the coefficient of x -2  15 .

Example 3 Find the constant term of (x+1/x)6 The common term  Cr ( x) 6 6 r 1 r ( ) x x r  x 6 r 1 3 T4  C3 ( x) ( ) x  20 r 3  the constant term  20 x  ( x) 0 6 r 1 r ( ) x 6 3 .

2/x)6 2 6 r The common term  Cr ( x ) 6 2 6r x  (x ) 0 x r  x12 2 r r4 1 r ( ) x 2 r ( ) x 2 4 T5  C4 ( x ) ( ) x  240 6 2 2  the constant term  240 .Example 4 Find the constant term of (x2 .

Example 5 Expand each of the following. a) (1-2x)4 b) (2x+5y)3 (1  2 x) 4  4C0 (1) 4 (2 x) 0  4C1 (1) 3 (2 x)1  4C2 (1) 2 (2 x) 2  4C3 (1)1 (2 x) 3  4C4 (1) 0 (2 x) 4  1  8 x  24 x 2  32 x 3  16 x 4 (2 x  5 y ) 3  3C0 (2 x) 3 (5 y ) 0  3C1 (2 x) 2 (5 y )1  3C2 (2 x)1 (5 y ) 2  3C3 (2 x) 0 (5 y ) 3  8 x 3  60 x 2 y  150 xy 2  125 y 3 .

) 2  2  10 x  20 x 2  x  5 x 2  10 x 3  ..   (2  x)(1  x) 5  (2  x) 5C0 (1) 5 ( x) 0  5C1 (1) 4 ( x)1  5C2 (1) 3 ( x) 2  .  2  44 x  25 x 2  .... .Example 6 Expand (2+x)(1+x)5 up to the term in x2 in ascending power of x..  (2  x)(1  5 x  10 x  .....

c)( 1  x34x)10 [ x r ] x  7 ) 6 [ x43 ] b)( a)2(13 x)2 4 [ x4 ] 7 4 d ) (2  x )(1  x) [ x ] 4 10 r 4 r 10 a)(1  x) [x ] the common ter m  7 CC r(1) (1 7)-r (x)3(rxx ) the common ter m 2 4 2 2 6 4 r x 6 r 4 r ( 2  x )( 1  x )  ( 2  x )( 1  C (  x )  C (  x ) the common ter m  C ( ) ( ) 1 3x 6 3 2 r1 4 r b)(  ) [ x ] 3 24 x 0  x1 10 r 4 4 r 3 4 3 2 x 3  ( r ) xC3 ( x)  C4 ( x) ) x 4xx r 4 2 2 3 4 4 10  ( 2  x )( 1  4 x  6 x  4 x  x ) c)(  x ) [constant] 7 r  4r 7 .x) [x ] 353 x( ) ( )  x T4  C 34 103 2 4 3 4 2 10 T C3 ( ) t(of x )x 2949120 The 35 3  coefficien 5 x t of x 3  the coefficien the constant term  2949120 2 .4 4 10  r  3 T5  C 4 (1)4 (x) x Coefficien t26 of x14 632 3x6 3 8 5 3 r  2 4 4 d)(2  x )(1 .Example 7 Find the coefficient of the term indicated in square brackets in the expansion of each of the expression 4 below.

... 2 207  200  a.. determine the value of a..)  (1  ax)(1  200 x  .Example 8 Given that the coefficient of x in the expansion of (1+ax)(1+5x)40 is 207.. (1  ax)(1  5 x) 40  (1  ax)(1 40C1 (5 x)  .  a  7 .  1  (200  a ) x  200ax  ..)  1  ax  200 x  200ax 2  .

001)  115200(0.005) 9  (2  5(0.. b) (2. b) Hence evaluate (2... p.) .. 9 9 9 0 9 8 1 9 7 2  512  11520 x  115200 x 2  .64 (2d .001))9  512  11520(0.005)9 correct to two decimal places.  523.Example 9 a) write the first three terms in the binomial expansion of (2+5x)9 in ascending power of x..001) 2  .. a ) (2  5 x)  C0 (2) (5 x)  C1 (2) (5 x)  C2 (2) (5 x)  .