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Chapter 25: The Body Compartments: Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids; Edema

Guyton and Hall, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 12th edition

d. c.Balance of Fluid Intake and Output • Steady-State Balance a. Daily intake of water Daily loss of water-insensible water loss Fluid loss in sweat Water loss in feces Water loss by the kidneys . b. e.

Table 25.1 Daily Intake and Output of Water (ml/day) Normal Intake Fluids ingested From metabolism Total Intake 2100 200 2300 Prolonged Heavy Exercise ? 200 ? Output Insensible-skin Insensible-lungs Sweat Feces Urine Total Output 350 350 100 100 1400 2300 350 650 5000 100 500 6600 .

25.1 Summary of body fluid regulation.Body Fluid Compartments Fig. including the major body fluid compartments .

Compartments (cont. peritoneal. Varies with age.) • Body Fluid Compartments a. pericardial. intraocular spaces. Extracellular-interstitial fluid and blood plasma c. Intracellular b. Transcellular-fluids in the synovial. and the CSF d. Total body water for men is about 60% and 50% for women e. and degree of obesity . gender.

) • Intracellular Fluid Compartment a.Compartments (cont. Concentration of substances is similar from cell to cell . Constitutes about 40% of the fluid in the average person b.

Interstitial fluid-makes up about 75% of the fluid b.Compartments (cont.) • Extracellular Fluid Compartment a. Only real difference between the two types is the protein composition of the plasma . Blood plasma-makes up 25% of the fluid c.

etc. • Hematocrit a. weight. 96% accurate because you cannot pack the cells completely c. Red blood cell fraction of the blood b.40) and females (o. Makes up about 7% of the body weight (5 L) b. Percentages vary according to gender. 60% plasma and 40% cells c. Males (o.30) .Blood Volume • Blood Volume a.

25. Fig.Constituents of Extra.2 Nonelectrolytes of the plasma . 25.2 Major cations and anions of intracellular and extracellular fluids.and Intracellular Fluids Fig.

Constituents of Extra.5 14 140 0 20 4 10 11 1 45 14 Amino acids 2 2 8 .7 108 28.0 1.2 Osmolar substances in extracellular and intracellular fluids Plasma (mOsm/L of Water Interstitial (mOsm/L of Water Intracellular (mOsm/L of Water Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Chlorine Bicarbonate Phosphate Sulfate Phosphocreatine Carnosine 142 4.and Intracellular Fluids Table 25.5 139 4.2 1.2 0.3 2 0.8 108 24 2 0.3 0.

8 282 5443 3.2 9 1.6 1.2 4 5.8 301.Constituents of Extra.2 4 4 4 Others Total mOsm/L Corrected osmolar activity Total Osmotic Pressure (37 C) 4.2 1.2 Osmolar substances in extracellular and intracellular fluids Plasma (mOsm/L of Water Interstitial (mOsm/L of Water Intracellular (mOsm/L of Water Creatine Lactate ATP Hexose monophosphate Glucose Protein Urea 0.8 281 5423 10 301.5 5 3.7 5.and Intracellular Fluids Table 25.2 0.6 0.2 281 5423 .9 300.2 1.

.Basic Principles of Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure • Osmosis is the net diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a region of high water concentration to one that has a lower water concentration. • Rate of diffusion of water is called the rate of osmosis.

Moles vs. Osmoles • Osmoles-the total number of particles in a solution • One osmole is equal to 1 mole of solute particles • Osmole refers to the number of osmotically active particles in a solution rather than to the molar concentration .

Osmolality vs. Osmolarity • Osmolality = osmoles/kg of water • Osmolarity = osmoles/L of solution .

cells do shrink or swell • Hypotonic-occurs if the water concentration is lower inside the cell (solutes are higher inside) and the cell will swell and possibly lyse • Hypertonic-occurs if the water concentration is higher inside the cell (solutes are lower inside) and the cell shrivels (crenates). water flows out of the cell .Osmotic Equilibrium • Isotonic-occurs if the water concentration of both intracellular and extracellular fluid is the same.

25.Fig.5 Effects of isotonic. hypotonic. and hypertonic solutions on cell volume .

) • Isosmotic-solutions with an osmolarity the same as the cell • Hyperosmotic-solutions with a higher osmolarity • Hyposmotic-solutions with a lower osmolarity .Equilibrium (cont.

Volume and Osmolality in Abnormal States • Effect of adding saline to extracellular fluid • Hyponatremia • Hyperantremia .

Depression of metabolic systems of tissues c. Failure of the lymphatics to return the fluid (lymphedema) . Abnormal leakage of fluid from plasma b. Hyponatremia b.Edema • Intracellular Edema a. Lack of adequate nutrition to the cells • Extracellular Edema a.