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Ferrous Metals

Metals form about a quarter of the earth crust by weight One of the earliest material used dated back to pre-historic time Some of the earliest metals used include copper! bron"e and iron Stone age #ron"e age $ %disco&ery% of steel Industrial 'e&olution in the 1(th century )ll metals e*cept gold are generally found chemically combined with other elements in the form of o*ides and sulphates+ ,ommonly known as ores+

.ure Metals and )lloys

Metal that are not mi*ed with any other materials are known as pure metals+ Metals listed in the .eriodic /able are pure metals 0+g+ Iron 1Fe2! ,opper 1,u2 and 3inc 13n2 )lloys are mixtures of two or more metals formed together with other elements4materials to create new metals with impro&ed properties and characteristics+ 0+g+ #rass 1,opper and 3inc2! Stainless steel 1steel and chromium2 )lloy 5 metal ) 6 metal # 6 $ 6 other elements

Ferrous Metals 8 9on-Ferrous Metals

Ferrous metals are metals that contain iron 0+g+ Steel 1iron and carbon2 9on-ferrous metals are metals that do not contain iron 0+g+ 3inc 1pure metal2! #ron"e 1,opper and tin2 1non-ferrous may contain slight traces of iron2 Ferrous Metal 5 alloy metals that contains iron 1 .rimary base metal is iron2 Non-ferrous Metal 5 alloy metals that do not contain iron .rimary base metal does not contain iron2

Metals can be di&ided into 2 groups Metals
Ferrous Metals Iron ;ow ,arbon Steel Medium ,arbon Steel <igh ,arbon Steel ,ast Iron Stainless Steel /ool Steels Others Non- Ferrous Metals )luminum ,opper #rass #ron"e 3inc ;ead /in Others

0*traction of Iron
>Iron is found in iron o*ide in the earth+ >/hree primary iron ores magnetite! hematite! taconite >Iron is e*tracted using blast furnace >Steps in e*traction of iron Ores is washed! crushed and mi*ed with limestone and coke /he mi*ture is fed into the furnace and is then melted ,oke1a product of coal! mainly carbon2 is used to con&ert the iron o*ides to iron

0*traction of Iron
;imestone helps to separate the impurities from the metal /he liquid waste is known as slag that floats on the molten iron /hey are then tapped off 1separated2 /he iron produced is only about @AB to @:B pure+ /he iron is then further refined using the basic o*ygen furnace and the electric arc furnace to produce steel which is widely used now+

#last Furnace

0*traction of Iron

A blast furnace

#last Furnace /emperatures


> Ore! coke! and limestone are CchargedD in layers into the top of a blast furnace > Ore is the source of the iron ! ,oke is the source of the carbon 1coke is deri&ed from coal! by heating in a coking o&en2 > ;imestone acts as a flu*ing slag to remo&e impurities like sulphur and silica > 11AA-deg+ air blown into bottom of furnace! burns o*ygen off the iron o*ides! causing temperature in furnace to get abo&e the melting point of iron 1appro* -AAA degrees2

> Molten iron sinks to bottom of furnace! where it is tapped off from furnace and cast into large ingots called CpigsD$pigs contain high carbon content 17B or so2! plus many impurities! such as sulphur and silica which wasn%t remo&ed by the limestone+


Ferrous Metals - Iron and Steel

.ure iron is soft and ductile to be of much practical use+ #E/ when carbon is added! useful set of alloys are produced+ /hey are known as carbon steel+ /he amount of carbon will determine the hardness of the steel+ /he carbon amount ranges from A+1B to 7B+


/ypes of Steel
Steel >;ow carbon steel 1mild steel2 >Medium carbon steel ><igh carbon steel 1tool steels2 >,ast iron Alloy Steels >Stainless steel ><igh speed steel


;ow ,arbon Steel

)lso known as mild steel ,ontain A+A:B -A+-2B carbon /ough! ductile and malleable 0asily Foined and welded .oor resistance to corrosion Often used a general purpose material 9ails! screws! car bodies! Structural Steel used in the construction industry


Medium ,arbon Steel

,ontains A+-:B - A+:B of carbon Offer more strength and hardness #E/ less ductile and malleable Structural steel! rails and garden tools


<igh ,arbon Steel

)lso known as Gtool steel% ,ontain A+::B-1+:B carbon Hery hard but offers <igher Strength ;ess ductile and less malleable <and tools 1chisels! punches2 Saw blades


,ast Iron
,ontains 2B-7B of carbon Hery hard and brittle Strong under compression Suitable for casting Ican be pour at a relati&ely low temperatureJ 0ngine block! engineer &ices! machine parts


Cast Iron
White: <ard and brittle! good wear resistance Eses rolling 8 crunching 0quipment Grey: Kood compressi&e 8 tensile strength! machinability! and &ibration-damping ability Eses machine bases! crankshafts! furnace doors! 0ngine #locks


Ductile: <igh strength and ductility Eses engine and machine parts

Malleable: <eat-treated &ersion of white cast iron


Stainless Steel
Steel alloyed with chromium 11(B2! nickel 1(B2! magnesium 1(B2 <ard and tough ,orrosion resistance ,omes in different grades Sinks! cooking utensils! surgical instruments


Stainless Steels
Main types: Ferritic chromium: &ery formable! relati&ely weakL used in architectural trim! kitchen range hoods! Fewelry! decorations! utensils Krades 7A@! 7-A! and other 7AA Austentitic nic el-chromium: non-magnetic! machinable! weldable! relati&ely weakL used in architectural products! such as fascias! curtain walls! storefronts! doors 8 windows! railingsL chemical processing! food utensils! kitchen applications+ series+ Krades -A1! -A2! -A-! -A7! -1=! and other -AA series+

Martensitic chromium: <igh strength! hardness! resistance to abrasionL used in turbine parts! bearings! kni&es! cutlery and generally Magnetic+ Krades 1?-7! 71A! 71=! 72A! 77A and other 7AA series Mara!in! "super alloys#: <igh strength! high /emperature alloy used in structural applications! aircraft components and are generally magnetic+ )lloys containing around 1(B 9ickel+

<igh Speed Steel

Medium ,arbon steel alloyed with /ungsten! chromium! &anadium Hery hard 'esistant to frictional heat e&en at high temperature ,an only be ground Machine cutting tools 1lathe and milling2 Mrills


<eat /reatment
) process used to alter the properties and characteristics of metals by heating and cooling+ ,old working induce stress in metal lead to work hardening pre&ent further work from taking place /hree stages of heat treatment 1+ <eat the metal to the correct temperature 2+ Neep it at that temperature for a the required length of time 1soaking2 -+ ,ool it in the correct way to gi&e the desired properties

<eat /reatment
/ypes of heat treatment )nnealing 9ormali"ing <ardening /empering ,ase hardening


)nnealing is the process whereby heat is introduced to mobilise the atoms and relie&e internal stress )fter annealing! it allows the metal to be further shaped It in&ol&es the re-crystalli"ation of the distorted structure


/his process is only confined to steel+ It is used to refine the grain due to work hardening It in&ol&es the heating of the steel to Fust abo&e Its upper critical point+

.hase diagram of Iron-,arbon


<ardening is the process of increasing the hardness of steel by adding a high amount of carbon /he degree of hardness depends on the amount of carbon present in steel and the form in which it is trapped during quenching+ Once hardened! the steel is resistant to wear but is brittle and easily broken under load+


/empering is the process to reduce hardness and brittleness slightly of a hardened steel workpiece+ It helps to produce a more elastic and tough steel capable of retaining the cutting edge after tempering .rior to tempering! the steel must be cleaned to brightness with emery cloth so that o*ide colour is &isible when reheated /empering temperature 14O hardness /empering temperature O toughness


Kuidelines for tempering /empering of cold chisel

2-A , 5 77= F -AA , 5 :?2 F


,ase <ardening
,ase hardening is a process used with mild steel to gi&e a hard skin /he metal is heated to cherry red and is dipped in ,arbon powder+ It is then repeated 2-- more times before Puenching the metal in water to harden the skin+ /his allows the surface of mild steel to be able to subFect to wear but the soft core is able to subFect to Sudden shock e+g+ the tool holders


,ase <ardening - ,arburi"ing

,arburi"ing in&ol&es placing the mild steel in bo* packed with charcoal granules! heated to @:A Q , 11?72 oF2 and allowing the mild steel to soak for se&eral hours+ It achie&es the same purpose of case hardening


Carbon Steels $se% for Construciton

> /hose steels in which the residual elements 1carbon! manganese! sulphur! silicon! etc+2 are controlled! but in which no alloying elements are added to achie&e special properties+


,arbon Structural Steel

> For years! the workhorse all-purpose steel for nearly all structural CshapesD 1beams! channels! angles! etc+2! as well as plates and bars! has been

Ride Flanged #eams CRD shapes

> 'ecently 1last few years2! )-= has been displaced as the steel of choice for the maFor CshapeD subcategory called wideflange beams! or CRD shapes+ /he replacement steel is a high-strength! lowalloy steel! known as A(() 1see below2+ For the other non-wide-flange beam structural shapes! )-= remains the predominant steel+

Structural pipe and square tubing

> .ipe A*& .ipe! Steel! #lack and <otMipped! 3inc- ,oated Relded and Seamless+ > /ubing A*++ ,old-Formed Relded and Seamless Structural /ubing in 'ounds and Shapes+ > A*+, <ot-Formed Relded and Seamless ,arbon Steel Structural /ubing+

-i!h-Stren!th. /o0-Alloy Steels

> > -i!h-Stren!th. /o0-Alloy Steels: ) group of steels with chemical compositions specially de&eloped to impart better mechanical properties and greater resistance to atmospheric corrosion than are obtainable from con&entional carbon structural steels+ Se&eral particular steels used often in construction! and their )S/M specifications! are A*1): <igh-Strength! ;ow-)lloy ,olumbium-Hanadium Steels of Structural Puality+ A',2: <ot-Formed Relded and Seamless <igh-Strength! ;ow-)lloy Structural /ubing A(,&: <igh-Strength! ;ow-)lloy Steel Shapes of Structural Puality! .roduced by Puenching and Self-/empering .rocess A((): Steel for Structural Shapes for $se in 3uil%in! Framin! /his is the steel which has substantially replaced )-= steel for Ride-flange structural shapes+

> > > > >

,orrosion S 'esistant Steels

> A)4): <igh-Strength! ;ow-)lloy Structural Steel+ > A*22: <igh-Strength! ;ow-)lloy Structural Steel with :A ksi Minimum Tield .oint+ > A241: ,old-Formed Relded and Seamless <igh-Strength! ;ow-)lloy Structural /ubing with Impro&ed )tmospheric ,orrosion 'esistance+