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# Lecture 6 - Flexure

## September 13, 2001 CVEN 444

Lecture Goals
Class Project Structures Basic Concepts Rectangular Beams

Class Project
The structural floor plan of a three-story (ground floor, two suspended floors, and a roof) office building is shown on the next page. The roof covers the hole used for the elevator shaft and stairwells. The new building will be located in Houston, Texas. The floor systems consist of one-way pan joists slabs supported in one direction by beams located on column lines A through F. In addition, beams are located on column lines 1 and 4 as part of the lateral force resisting system.
1 A
1 1

0.75L

B 0.75L
2

C
2 Hole for Elevator shafts and stairwells 2 Pan joist rib direction (typ) 2

0.75L

0.75L

0.75L F L 0.85L L

Plan View

Class Project
1 A
1 1

0.75L

B 0.75L
2

C
2 Hole for Elevator shafts and stairwells 2 Pan joist rib direction (typ) 2

0.75L

0.75L

0.75L F L 0.85L L

Plan View

Class Project
Overview of Required Design:
A Design the continuous beams of the first floor on column lines D and E of the second suspended floor assuming that they support the one-way pan joist floor system (3 parts).
B Design the slab of the second suspended floor as a one-way pan joist system supported in one direction on column lines A through F (3 parts). C Design and detail the columns for all three stories for the location where column lines E and 2 intersect (1 part). D Design the roof system as a two-way slab without beams (1 part). E Design the footing for the column on column lines E and 2 (1 part).

Class Project
Follow detailed instructions on separate assignment sheets!!!

Class Project
1 A
1 1

0.75L

B 0.75L
2

C
2
Hole for Elevator shafts and stairwells

0.75L

D
2 Pan joist - rib direction (typ) 2

0.75L

E 0.75L

F
L 0.85L L

Plan View

Class Project
The Joist detail for section 1-1

## The beam detail for section 2-2

Class Project
Team Performance
It is expected that all assignments related to the project will be done in teams. Each assignment must contain computations that are initialed by the calculators (or originators) and initialed by the checker(s). Members of the team will rotate between calculation and checking tasks. It is recommended that two persons calculate for each assignment (i.e., In a four-person team, two persons should provide calculation services on odd numbered assignments and checking services on even number assignments. In a threeperson team, each person should rotate so that they are checking every third assignment.) Those not performing calculations are responsible for checking them and must be afforded ample time to thoroughly check the calculations. If revisions are necessary, those performing the calculations must make the corrections. Each sheet must be initialed by the originator and checker. A cover sheet with the signature of each team member must be included with each assignment. Assignments that are not signed or initialed by all team members will not be accepted.

Class Project
Peer Evaluation
Peer evaluation is a common practice in the engineering community. Critical evaluation is a necessary component of improving the engineering profession. It is generally believed that honors and awards granted by peers are the highest possible honors. After all, it is our peers who know best what is required to do an adequate, good, or outstanding job. Your individual project grade will depend on an evaluation by your peers at the end of the semester. The evaluation form will have a format similar to the one provided on the back of this sheet. Evaluation forms will also be collected during the middle of the semester for an unofficial assessment of group performance.

Class Project

Class of Structures

Class of Structures

Class of Structures

Class of Structures

Retaining Wall

Abutment

Class of Structures

## Deformed Frame Reinforced Frame

Flexural Stress
The beam is a structural member used to support the internal moments and shears. It would be called a beam-column if a compressive force existed.

## C=T M = C*(jd) = T*(jd)

Flexural Stress
The stress in the block is defined as:

s = (M*y) / I

Sxx = I / (ymax)
The equation for Sxx modulus for calculating maximum compressive stress.

Flexural Stress
There are 5 stages the concrete through which the beam goes.
Stage 1: No external loads self weight. Stage 2: the external load P cause the bottom fibers to equal to modulus of rupture of the concrete. Entire concrete section was effective, steel bar at tension side has same strain as surrounding concrete.

Flexural Stress
There are 5 stages the concrete through which the beam goes.
Stage 3: The tensile strength of the concrete exceeds the rupture fr and cracks develop. The neutral axis shifts upward and cracks extend to neutral axis. Concrete loses tensile strength and steel starts working effectively and resists the entire tensile load.

Flexural Stress
There are 5 stages the concrete through which the beam goes.
Stage 4: The reinforcement yields. Stage 5: Failure of the beam.

Flexural Stress
The three stages of the beam. Stage 1: No external loads acting on the beam. Stage 3: Service loading on the beam. Stage 5: Beam failure.

Flexural Stress
The moment-curvature diagram show the five stages of the beam. The plot is of the curvature angle,f , verse the moment.

f = (e / y) = [ s / E ] / y
= [(My /I) / E] / y f=M/(EI)

Flexural Stress
The first beam fails in shear and the second beam fails in bending moment.

Flexural Stress
There are three types of flexural failure of a structural member.
Steel may reach its yield strength before the concrete reaches its maximum. (Underreinforced section). Steel reaches yield at same time as concrete reaches ultimate strength. (Balanced section). Concrete may fail before the the yield of steel due to the presence of a high percentage of steel in the section. (Overreinforced section).

Flexural Stress
The flexural strain and stress distribution of beam from a test beam.

Flexural Stress
Strain measured in test of eccentrically loaded columns for a tied and spiral columns.

Flexural Stress
Example
Consider a simple rectangular beam( b x h ) reinforced with steel reinforcement of As. (1) Determine the centroid ( neutral axis, NA ) and moment of inertia Ixx of the beam for an ideal beam (no cracks). (2) Determine the NA and moment of inertia, Ixx, of beam if the beam is cracked and tensile forces are in the steel only.