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MEANING: A possibility, a supposition or an assumption Hypothesis is a tentative suggestions expressed as preposition to explain an event DEFINITION: GEORGE.A. LUNDBERG a hypothesis is a tentative generalisation, the validity of which remains to be tested GOODE& HATT a preposition which can be put to test to determine validity

It guides the researcher

Determines the nature of facts to be

collected Determines methodology to be adopted Prevents investigator from collecting non essential and useless data Avoids wastage of time


Should be clear and precise Should be capable of being tested Should be able to state relationship between variables Should be limited in scope and must be specific Should be easily understandable Should be consistent Should be amenable to testing Should explain what it claims to explain Should have empirical reference

Basic concepts concerning testing of hypothesis


hypothesis& Alternative hypothesis Level of significance Two tailed& One tailed tests Type I and Type II error Decision Accept Ho Reject Ho Ho True Correct Type I error Ho False Type II error Correct

UNIVERSE or POPULATION All items in any field of enquiry SAMPLE: Selected items from universe or population SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: The selection process of sample SAMPLE DESIGN: Is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. It also denotes the size of the sample.

Steps in sampling design

Defining set of objects ie Universe Selection of sampling unit Deciding sampling frame

Deciding the size of the sample

Decision about area of interest Consideration of budgets Selection of sampling technique

Criteria of selecting sampling procedure Cost of collection Cost of incorrect inference

Systematic bias

Sampling Error

Inappropriate sampling frame Defective measuring devise Non-respondents Indeterminacy principle Natural bias in reporting of data

Characteristics of good sample design

It should truly representative of sample It should result in small sampling error It should be viable Systematic bias should be controlled in a better way Generalisation should be possible with reasonable level of confidence


Element selection Representation Basis Probability Non probability Simple random Convenient Complex random Purposive -Cluster -Quota sampling -Systematic -Judgmental -Area sampling -Multistage -Sequential

Unrestricted Restricted