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Golden Era Of Subcontinent

iEARN Learning Circle Project Places and Perspectives Session Jan to May 2012
Made by : Class V Beaconhouse School System Allama Iqbal Town Chapter Lahore Pakistan

Mughal Era (1526-1858)

The Mughals ruled in India for more than 300 years (1526 to 1858). The Mughal Empire ruled most of India and Pakistan. The era of Mughal Empire is written with golden words in Indian history as this was the period when the phenomenon of single central ruling power came into existence in the country. Prior to the emergence of Mughal Empire, different regions of the country were ruled by many Muslim and Hindu kingdoms across the country.

Mughal Dynasty has contributed immensely with their culture, tradition, ethnicity and artistry to the Indian history.
Made by: Usman Ijaz and Muhammad Sheharyar

Mughal Influence in the Subcontinent

One of the greatest Mughal influences is that it gave to Indian culture new ideas in architecture. It influenced in terms of giving elaborate designs. Landscape gardening. Centralized government system. Urdu language developed. (Urdu = Persian + Arabic + Turkish) Mughal cuisine was introduced. New trade routes with Arabs and Turks. New style of clothes and jewelry was introduced in the subcontinent.
Made by: Muhammad Qasim amd Muhammad Rahim Nadeem
Mughal Jewelry

Great Mughal Emperor

The Great Mughal Emperors were:

Babur (1526-1530)

Humayun (1530-1556) Akbar (1556-1605) The Great

Jehangir (1605-1627)
The Paragon of Stability

Shah Jehan (1627-1658)

The Master Builder

Aurangzeb (1658-1707)

Made by: Mufasser Raza and Huzaiafa Asif

Babur (1526-1530

The First of the Mughals

In 1526, a central Asian leader named Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last sultan of Delhi, at the Battle of Panipat. Babur was a descendant of both Timur and the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan. He conquered much of Northern India.
The first Mughal Emperor Babur

Humayun (1530-1556)
After Babur died, he was succeeded by his son Humayun in 1530. Humayun was 23 years old.
An image from an album commissioned by Shah Jahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.

Made By : Ahmed Shoaib & Shaheer Ahmed

Akbar 1556 - 1605 The Great

Akbar became the new Mughal ruler at the age of 14. He built the largest army ever in the empire. Great administrator Best known for his tolerance .

Jehangir 1605-1628 The Paragon of Stability

Mughal Empire under Akbar.

Jehangir succeeded his father Akbar in 1605. He continued many of Akbars policies. Freedom of worship. Continued friendship and alliance with Rajputs. Allowed foreigners like the Portuguese and. English into India for trade
Made by: Qasim Rizwan and Eman Rehan

Shah Jehan (1627-1658) The Master Builder

Jehangir was succeeded by his second son Khurram in 1628. Khurram alias Shah Jahan, was the fifth Mughal ruler of India. He expanded his Empire to Kandhar in the north and conquered most of Southern India. The Mughal Empire prospered greatly during this reign. Shah Jehan was a patron of the arts The arts and culture of the Mughal Empire is admired even today.
Made by: Ammar Riaz and Muhammad Abdullah

The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan is accompanied by his three sons

Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
Aurengzeb was the son of Shah Jahan and was the sixth ruler of the Mughal Empire. He was a devout Muslim. In terms of tenure he matched the reign of Akbar. The vision to unite entire India was well realized during his tenure and in terms of area captured the Mughal rule was at its peak. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 1.25 million square miles, ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 1/4th The Mughal of the world's population. Army under the The only negative aspect was that he never trained any command of Prince of his sons in administration. Aurangzeb in,
October 1635.

Made by: Muahammad Afnan and Hamza Jillani

Architecture under the Mughal Dynasty

Art and architecture under the Mughal era was a blend of Islamic and Persian architecture. Mughals introduced a lot of innovative ideas when it came to construction in the subcontinent. White marble, red sandstone and Gemstones were used in the Mughal architecture.

Nearly 400 monuments have survived a time-span of 132 years.

Used arches and domes . Symmetry and balance stressed designs. Used octagons a lot.
Made by: Moiz Ali and . Usman Udin Khan

Architecture under the Mughal Dynasty (contd)

Mughal architecture under Babur witnessed the construction of quite a few mosques around India. The famous architectural groundings that belong to Akbar are:
the fortified-palace of Agra Fatehpur Sikri in Agra
The royal planned city in Fatehpur Sikri, situated 26 miles west of Agra, Uttar Pradesh, had served as the political capital of India`s Mughal Empire during Emperor Akbar`s reign. The city is known to have been built on the Sikri ridge, in honour of Saint Shaikh Salim Chisti

Jahangiri Mahal, Palace in Allahabad Fort in Ajmer

Jodha Bai Palace

House of Birbal and his own magnificent tomb.
Made by: Muwahid Sulatn and Haji Ammar Ali

Architecture under the Mughal Dynasty (contd)

Shah Jahan left behind a grand legacy of structures constructed during his reign. His most famous building was the Taj Mahal, now a wonder of the world, which he built out of love for his wife the empress Mumtaz Mahal. Its structure was drawn with great care and architects from all over the world were called for this purpose. The building took twenty years to complete and was constructed from white marble under laid with brick.
Wonder of World Made by: Ali Hassan and Asad Ahsan

Architecture under the Mughal Dynasty (contd)

Among the other constructions of Shahjehan are - Red Fort in Delhi - Large sections of Agra Fort - The Jama Masjid(Grand Mosque) - The Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan - The Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque), Lahore - The Shalimar Gardens in Lahore - Sections of the Lahore Fort, Lahore - The Jahangir mausoleumhis father's tomb - He also had the Peacock Throne, Takht e Taus, made to celebrate his rule.

Made by :Roshan Ahmed and Urva Bin Sharjeel Butt

Mughal Art
It is very colorful and detailed.

It involved flowers and floral patterns

The Mughal empire provided a secure framework within which artistic genius could flourish. Both Hindu and Muslim artists collaborated to produce some of the best Indian art. The Mughal emperors were themselves patrons of art whose intellectual ideas and cultural outlook were expressed in the architecture.

Made by: Mustafa Ali and Wajeeh Haider

Science and technology in Mughal Era

Mughal emperor Humayun built a personal observatory near Delhi. Fathullah Shirazi a Persian-Indian polymath and mechanical engineer who worked for Akbar the Great in the Mughal Empire, developed a volley gun.

Made by:Faizan Qasim and Muhammad Bilal

Mughal Society
The Indian economy remained as prosperous under the Mughals as it was, because of the creation of a road system and a uniform currency. Manufactured goods and peasant-grown cash crops were sold throughout the world. Key industries included shipbuilding , textiles, and steel. The Mughals also maintained various river fleets, which transported soldiers over rivers and fought rebels. Most industry was based in rural areas. The Mughals also built libraries in every province.
Made by: Hamza Ikram and Muhammad Siddique

It is agreed among many scholars that the Mughal empire was the greatest, richest and most long-lasting Muslim dynasty to rule India. The Mughal emperors were ambitious and for the most part able rulers.

Made by : Shahzaib Zafar

Sources (data taken on 6th May 2012) ( access to the site on 1st May 2012) ( access to the site on 2nd May 2012) ( access to the site on 2nd May 2012) ( access to the site on 3rd May 2012) The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture written by Annemarie Schimmel, Burzine K. Waghmar