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THEORITICAL ANALYSIS OF MICRO

CHANNEL HEAT EXCHANGER

GUIDE SUBMITTED BY
Dr. JAHAR AMIT SHRIVASTAVA
SARKAR SECOND YEAR
THERMAL AND FLUID
ROLL NO. 07030615
MICRO CHANNEL HEAT EXCHANGER
STRUCTURAL DETAILS IN THE RANGE OF MICRONS

HEAT SINK HEAT EXCHANGER

 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS
 CHIPS
 VLSI
 LAPTOPS
CLASSIFICATION
SURFACE AREA CHANNEL DIMENSION
DENSITY
OR • Micro scale: 1-100
µm
COMPACTNESS • Meso scale: 100
µm- 1 mm
ABOUT 10,000 m2 /m3 • Macro scale: > 6
mm
CHANNEL SIZE AND SURFACE AREA
DENSITY ARE INTER RELATED
DEPARTURE FROM CONVENTIONAL
THEORY

• A CHANGE FROM CONVENTIONAL ASSUMPTION SUCH AS


CONTINUUM APPROACH

• INCREASED INFLUENCE OF SOME FORCES LIKE


ELECTROKINETIC OR ELECTRO OSMOTIC FORCE

• UNCERTAINITY REGARDING EMPERICAL FACTORS DERIVED


AT LARGE SCALE. EG: ENTRANCE LOSS, EXIT LOSS
METHODS OF OPTIMIZATION

MINIMUM EXERGY
IRREVERSIBILITY ANALYSIS
CONCEPT
THERMOECONOMICS

MINIMUM
RESISTANCE
TO HEAT
FLOW
ENTROPY
GENERATION
MINIMIZATION
IRREVERSIBILITY MINIMIZATION

• Itotal = Ithermal +Ipressure

Ithermal Ipressure
DEPENDS ON DEPENDS ON

ENTROPY VISCOUS

GENERATION DISSIPATION

TO ACHIEVE TOTAL MINIMUM IRREVERSIBILITY


HEAT SINK HEAT EXCHANGER
Q

Width W
Height of channel Dd
t
Length of channel L
Thickness of metal Dd
saperating heat source
from fluid t W
Heat rate Q L
tf
Channel width Dc Dc
Fin thickness t f

SKETCH
DIAGRAM OF
HEAT SINK
BASIC DIMENSIONS OF THE TWO HEAT
EXCHANGERS
HEAT EXCHANGER 1 HEAT EXCHANGER 2

Width 76.2mm
Width 10mm
Thickness of base plate 0.2mm
Thickness of base plate 0.2mm
Height of channel 12.7mm
Height of channel 0.5mm
Thermal conductivity
Thermal conductivity
Of the heat exchanger
Of the heat exchanger
material 170W/mC
material
170W/mC
N, Dc, tf, L are variable
N, Dc, tf, L are variable
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
HEAT EXCHANGER 1 WITH WATER AS
THE COOLING MEDIUM
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. HEAT
TRANSFER RATE
With increase in Q

flow Irre_t IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. HEAT TRANSFER

200 25

180

Irre_p
IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

160 20

140

120 15 IRRE_P

DEL_T (K)
IRRE_T
100
irre_total
80 10 DEL_T

60

40 5

20

0 0
0 50 100 150 200
HEAT TRANSFER (W)
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF
PASSES (Tf constant)
Dc decreases

IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF PASSES


Higher
flow 120 20
del_t
rise 100 18

16
IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

14
Irre_t Irre_p first reducing 80
irre_p
12
and then increasing irre_t
60 10 irre_total
del_t
8

Irre_p = To[m*Δ p 40] 6

Tavg*ρ 20 4

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
At Dc below 0.105 mm or no. of NO. OF PASSES
passes above 80 (optimum)
irre_p rises again
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF
PASSES (Dc constant)

IRREVERSIBILIY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF PASSES


small
flow
increase
120 18

in del_t 16
100
IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

14

So
80 12
irre_t irre_p

DEL_T (K)
10
irre_t
60
irre_total
Del_p 8
del_t
40 6

Irre_p 4
20
2

0 0
Overall decrease0in 20 40 60 80 100
total irreversibility NO. OF PASSES

but huge pressure


drop and limit to fin
thickness
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. LENGTH

As length increases mass


flow required reduces IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. LENGTH

120 30

100 25
IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

Irre_p and
del_p 80 20
irre_p

DEL_T (K)
irre_t
60 15
irre_total
del_t
Irre_t slightly 40 10

20 5

Large length is 0 0

restricted by huge 0 20 40 60
LENGTH (MM)
80 100 120

pressure drop
HEAT EXCHANGER 2 WITH WATER AS
THE COOLING MEDIUM
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. HEAT
TRANSFER RATE

With increase IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. HEAT TRANSFER

in flow rate 160 20


both irre_t and 18
140
irre_p
IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

16
increases. 120
14
100
12 IRRE_P
IRRE_T
80 10
irre_total
8 DEL_T
60
6
40
4
20
2

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
HEAT TRANSFER (W)
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF
PASSES (Tf constant)
Dc reduces
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF PASSES

So irre_t reduces
120 25

But del_p increases so


IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

100
20
irre_p increases.
80
15 irre_p

DEL_T (K)
In this case 60
irre_t
irre_total
overall effect 10 del_t
is the 40

reduction of 5
20
total
irreversibility 0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
NO. OF PASSES
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF
PASSES (Dc constant)
Flow
Irre_t IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF PASSES

120 25

24.5
100
IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

24

23.5
Irre_p 80
23 irre_p

DEL_T (K)
60 22.5 irre_t
irre_total
22
40 del_t
21.5

21
20
20.5

0 20
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
NO. OF PASSES
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. LENGTH

With increase in IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. LENGTH

length, 120 25

irre_t reduces
IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

100
20
and irre_p rises
due to rise in 80
15 irre_p
pressure drop

DEL_T (K)
60 irre_t
irre_total
10
del_t
40

5
20

0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
LENGTH (MM)
HEAT EXCHANGER 1 WITH AIR AS COOLING
MEDIUM
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. HEAT
TRANSFER RATE
FLOW
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. HEAT TRANSFER

Irre_t
1200 25

1000
20
IRRE_P. IRRE_T IRRE_TOTAL (W)

Irre_p
800
15 irre_p

DEL_T (K)
irre_t
600
irre_total
10 del_t
400

5
200

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
HEAT TRANSFER (W)
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF
PASSES (Tf constant)
Dc decreases
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF PASSES

Flow 50 20

decreases 45
Irre_t 18
IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

40 16

35 14

30 12 irre_p
Irre_p

DEL_T (K)
irre_t
25 10
irre_total
20 8 del_t
First del_p and irre_p
reduces and then15starts 6

increasing after n10= 80 4

5 2

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
NO. OF PASSES
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF
PASSES (Dc constant)
flow
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF PASSES
Irre_p
200 14

180
12
IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

160

140 10
Irre_t slightly
120 irre_p
8

DEL_T (K)
irre_t
100
irre_total
6
80 del_t

60 4

40
2
20

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100
NO. OF PASSES
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. LENGTH

With Increase in length, irre_p


increases and irre_t IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. LENGTH
decreases
60 25
IRRE_P, IRRE_T, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

50
20

40
15 irre_p

DEL_T (K)
irre_t
30
irre_total
10 del_t
20

5
10

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
LENGTH (MM)
HEAT EXCHANGER 2 WITH AIR AS
COOLING MEDIUM
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T.
HEAT TRANSFER RATE
flow

IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. HEAT TRANSFER


Irre_p and irre_t
300 9

8
IRRE_T, IRRE_P, IRRE_TOTAL (W)

250
7

200 6
irre_p
5 irre_t
150
4 irre_total
del_t
100 3

2
50
1

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100
HEAT TRANSFER (W)
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO.
OF PASSES (tf constant)
Dc decreases
IRREVERSIBILITY VARRIATION W.R.T NO. OF PASSES

flow 500 25

450
IRRE_P, IRRE_T IRRE_TOTAL (W)

400 20

Irre_p first decreases


350 and
then increases 300 15 irre_p

DEL_T (K)
irre_t
250
irre_total
200 10 del_t
150

100 5
In this case 21 no. of
50
passes and Dc 0.605
0 0
comes out to be 19the 20 21 22 23 24 25
optimum value. NO. OF PASSES
HEAT EXCHANGER 1 WITH AIR AS THE COOLING
MEDIUM

Graph clearly shows that if


height of channel is
increased than lower length
can be employed
MINIMUM POSSIBLE LENGTH FOR GIVEN HEIGHT

9
8
7
LENGTH (MM)

6
5
length
4
3
2
1
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
HEIGHT (MM)

Graph a
CONCLUSION

• HIGHER “h” CAN BE OBTAINED BY REDUCING Dh up to certain limit due to rapid increase of pressure
drop.

• Large length reduces irre_t but del_p and irre_p rises. So restricted.

• With increase in height of the channel, length of the channel can be reduced

• When channel width is decrease then thermal irreversibility may increase or decrease depending on the
extent of change in del_t but pressure irreversibility decreases and then increases. This may give rise to
optimum value.6.3.2

• With an increase in load, both thermal and viscous irreversibility increases.


IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO.
OF PASSES (Dc constant)

IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. NO. OF PASSES

450 8

400 7
IRRE_P, IRRE_T IRRE_TOTAL (W)

350
6
300
5 irre_p

DEL_T (K)
250
irre_t
4
200 irre_total

3 del_t
150
2
100

50 1

0 0
0 5 10 15 20
NO. OF PASSES
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T.
LENGTH
IRREVERSIBILITY VARIATION W.R.T. LENGTH

160 8

140 7
IRRE_P, IRRE_T IRRE_TOTAL (W)

120 6

100 5
irre_p

DEL_T (K)
irre_t
80 4
irre_total
del_t
60 3

40 2

20 1

0 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
LENGTH (MM)