Blood Proteins

Lecture 57
Baynes & Dominiczak, Chapter 3 and 4
Gene C. Lavers, Ph.D.


©Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. Lavers No part of this presentation may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher.

Fluid Communication and Transport Unicellular organisms

Blood Composition Introduction

 Unicellular organisms (( cell )) media

 obtain food and dispose of waste products directly with the aqueous media in which the organisms exist.  media can change, e.g., depletion of food or accumulation of waste or other substances.  intracellular fluid maintenance of the proper composition if fails, then the organism ceases to function.

© Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. Lavers


and the tissue cells continue to function. the interstitial fluid.  circulating blood within capillary walls replaces essential substances and removes accumulated waste thereby maintaining the interstitial fluid composition within proper limits (by diffusion).Fluid Communication and Transport Multicellular organisms Blood Composition Introduction direct exchange direct exchange (( cell )) interstitial fluid indirect exchange (( blood ))  obtain food and dispose of waste products directly by diffusion with a bathing aqueous media.e.  interstitial fluid (media) is depleted of essential substances and accumulates cellular waste or other substances. Lavers 3 . i. © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C..  intracellular fluid maintenance of the proper composition succeeds.

g. etc. Lavers 4 ..  Lungs: CO2  Intestines: feces (e. NH3. © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. etc.stercobilin)  Skin: sweat (salts and urea)  Provide  blood cells (formed elements) from bone marrow  Proteins from Liver (e. adrenals.Maintenance of Blood Composition Mechanisms Blood Composition  Blood is maintained within physiological limits by special mechanisms:  Provide essential substances  Remove waste products  Gastrointestinal system: nutrient food  Lungs: O2  Kidneys: urea.. creatinine.g. clotting factors)  Hormones from pancreas.

Gaseous transport .absorbed digestion products from the intestines products move to the tissues for utilization. 2. Food transport . 4.General Functions Transport Blood Composition 1.pituitary.) pass into blood then to kidneys and other organs for elimination. and testes. Waste transport . CO2 from cellular oxidation is carried from tissues by blood to lungs for exhilation. synthesize hormones brought by blood to tissues requiring them. creatinine etc. thyroid. Lavers 5 . 3. © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. ovary.O2 via oxyhemoglobin from the lungs to tissues for metabolic oxidation and energy production. urate.waste products (urea. Hormone transport . pancreas.

H2CO3. NH3. 6. while 7.the high specific heat of water allows flowing blood to transfer heat from warmer to cooler tissues maintaining uniform temperature. Lavers 6 . Regulation of body pH . HCO3tend to lower or raise blood pH. © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. Regulation of fluid balance between blood and tissues .Colloidal osmotic pressure of plasma > lymph causing fluid to move from lymph to plasma. citric acid.General Functions Regulation Blood Composition 5. lactic acid. Buffer systems help maintain pH within limits. Regulation of body temperature .

respectively.e. – 3) precipitins specifically precipitate antigenic protein. and monocytes engulf invading bacteria and cellular debris. – 2) hemolysins or cytolysins rupture cells. i. © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. 9. Defense against infection –  Large amoeboid leukocytes. – 4) antitoxins counteract toxins of pathogenic organisms.clotting and anti-clotting agents circulate to safeguard against blood loss or unscheduled clots.  Antibody proteins include – 1) agglutinins clump cells.. within the circulatory system. Lavers 7 . diphtheria toxin.General Functions Regulation Blood Composition Introduction 8. Prevention of hemorrhage . polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

065 g/ml Viscosity is approx. interface). After centrifugation.055 .0 . white cells (buffy coat.4 (7.1. Lavers 8 . 5 . Measured by dye dilution gives plasma volume Spec.General Characteristics Blood Composition Introduction    Blood mass is approx. 5500 ml of blood Blood volume is more nearly proportional to surface area than to body weight (2. 6-7% of body weight 70 kg human has approx.6 times water pH is 7.2.51)     Unclotted blood (prevented by adding oxalate to precipitate Ca2+). and red cells (bottom pellet).9Kml/m2). yellow plasma fluid (top).33 to 7. © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. gravity is 1.

Aggregation of fibrin yields network of fibers. Lavers 9 . © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. nutrients and cellular waste products. Blood cellsl  Erythrocytes (red cells) comprise 45% of blood volume = hematocrit (Hct). During centrifugation. ions. fibrin threads pellet to bottom leaving a clear yellow fluid called serum. Blood clot in vivo gives serum and cells emeshed in a network of fibrous strands of fibrin formed from fibrinogen (a zymogen).  Leukocytes (white cells)  Platelets (thromocytes) comprise 1% of blood volume = buffy coat.General Characteristics Blood Composition     Plasma (blood without cells) can clot. Serum is a yellow fluid containing various proteins.

Lavers 10 .Typical Clinical Values Blood Composition Blood volume: 70 ml/kg    Plasma volume: 35-45 ml/kg Red cell volume: 28-35 ml/kg Hematocrit: 41-45% © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C.

3-bisphosphoglycerate plays role in O2 delivery to tissues  pentose phosphate shunt yields NADPH that helps maintain the -SH groups of SH-containing proteins in a reduced state.1 x 1012 cells /liter of blood Primary function: delivery of O2 to tissues and participate in transport of CO2 to the lungs  Mature erythrocytes have.      glycolytic pathway provide energy  2.g. RBC) Formed in bone marrow 120 day average life. Lavers 11 . e.4 to 6. Example. and membrane components  hemoglobin is 14-18 g/dL of blood © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. 3phosphoglyceraldehyde dehydrogenase.Cellular Components Blood Composition Erythrocytes (red blood cells.. removed by spleen 4.

Blood Cellular Components White Cells  Lymphocytes. Lavers 12 .  Monocytes are non granular – have rounded nuclei.  4-12 x 109 cells/liter of blood © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. granular – have multi lobed nuclei.

2-0. 11-17 percent  Plasma – Albumin.       Blood Composition osmosis immunity clotting substrate released from cells Alanine aminotransferase ALT .3-2.Blood Components Blood and Plasma proteins.4 mg % – Enzymes  Alkaline Phosphatase AP. amount. 1. Lavers 13 .5 mg % – Fibrinogen. 4.7 mg % – Globulins. functions  Red cells (erythrocytes) – Hemoglobin. 100-250 U/liter  Creatine Phosphokinase CPK. 0.7-5. Aspartate aminotransferase AST 7-37 U/liter Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase SGOT Thrombin clotting (coagulation) Plasmin fibrinolysis others © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. 39-117 U/liter  Lactate Dehydrogenase LDH.

salts. ions.0 mg/dL various functions Uric acid – 2. lipoproteins – – – – – – – – – Glucose – 70-110 mg/dL energy Bilirubin – 0. Lavers 14 . etc. © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C.Other Blood Components Components Blood glucose.0 mg/dL from purines BUN (blood urea nitrogen) – 10-20 mg/dL kidney function Cholesterol.5-7.2 TG about 70-100 Triglycerides. 120-240 mg/dL cell fluidity HDL-Cholesterol.0. 35-55 mg/dL removal of chol VLDL and LDL cholesterol delivery of chol LDL = TC .0 mg/dL (yellow) Calcium – 8. amino acids.3-10.2-1.HDL . 20-190 mg/dL – Many other compounds.

Lavers 15 . 7% solute weight Electrophoresis resolves serum into 5-major fractions.      Albumin (54-58%) 1-globulins (6-7%) 2-globulins (8-9%) 1-globulins (13-14%) -globulins (11-12%) Note: The different globulin fractions contain more than one protein. © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C.Immunoglobins Plasma Proteins Blood proteins constitute approx.

Blood Dehydration Plasma Proteins Plasma Protein concentration in human adults is from 6. high values are frequently due to increases in one or more globulin fractions.  Dehydration gives increased levels.0 -8.  A decrease in total plasma protein is usually associated with a low [albumin]. © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C.0 g/dL plasma. in other cases. Lavers 16 .

5 pI 4.3 8.Relative Distribution of Normal Human Plasma Proteins by Electrophoresis Protein Component *Albumin *Globulins.0 6.9 1. 69. MJE and Morrison KC: J.23 14.4 Armstrong. Chem.2 44. Soc.7 5. 416 (1947) © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. SH.4 11.0 5. total A/G ratio -Globulins 1-Globulins 2-Globulins -Globulins -Globulins *Fibrinogen % Total Protein 55.0 5.1 5.7 13. Lavers 17 . Budka. Am.6 6.. Jr.

000 One of smallest plasma proteins. ellipsoid.7 About 55% plasma proteins by weight.4. Lavers 18 . 75-80% due to albumin   © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. with net charge of -18 at pH 7.Blood Albumin Plasma Proteins 4 to 5 g/dL    Synthesized in the liver Not a glycoprotein. pI 4. its mole fraction is much higher than the other larger proteins Osmotic pressure of blood is approx. thus. mol wt 68.

.g. and other bind tightly to albumin. malnutrition. and protein deficiency © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. penicillin G. – free fatty acids bind tightly to albumin for transport from liver to peripheral tissues – bilirubin is transported to liver for excretion in the bile – participation in the regulation of Ca2+. dicumarol. and tryptophan transport – drugs. aspirin.Blood Albumin Plasma Proteins 4 to 5 g/dL    Transports diverse substances. steroid hormones. e. many of which are sparingly soluble in water. sulfonamides. nephrotic syndrome. Lavers 19 . High [albumin] observed in dehydration Low [albumin] observed in liver disease.

but is normally present in very low amounts in adults. Hence. Ceruloplasm named for its blue color due to bound Cu2+. Lavers 20 . .Blood . iron in hemolytically released hemoglobin cannot be excreted into the urine by the kidney due to the high molecular weight of these protein complexes © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. and Globulins Plasma Proteins  -Fetoglobulin. which it transports and aids in Cu2+ homeostasis. In Wilson’s disease. Prenatal screening. a major glycoprotein of human fetal plasma and amnionic fluid. bound copper is low while brain and liver levels of Cu2+ increase with resulting neurological changes and liver damage   Haptoglobins form stable 1:1 complexes with hemoglobin when hemolysis of erythrocytes occurs intravascularly.

and helps regulate [free iron] in plasma preventing iron accumulation in tissues and urinary loss of iron. IgE. Increases in pregnant and iron-deficient individuals liver removes the complexes from the blood enabling reutilization of heme  Hemopexin binds heme preventing its urinary excretion. Lowered levels are associated with emphysema  Transferrin binds Fe3+ for transport to tissues especially the reticuloendothelial system.Blood Plasma Proteins and Globulins . IgD. .  -Proteinase inhibitor (-antitrypsin) protects tissue from  -Globulin includes several proteins including lipoproteins digestion by elastase. and IgM © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. Inherited genetic defect results in 15-20% of normal serum level. the  -Globulins immunoglobulins IgA. Lavers 21 .

Lavers 22 . Criscrossed fibrin network enmeshes cells and cell debris at a trauma site forming a soft clot. Plasmin protease(from plasminogen activation) slowly hydrolyzes the fibrin meshwork (clot dissolution accompanies wound healing) The formation and dissolution of a fibrin clot is a complex.Fibrinogen  Fibrin  Fibers Blood Coagulation Plasma Proteins       A soluble. Fibrin self-aggregates into long thread-like fibers. © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. multi protein molecule made in the liver Thrombin (from prothrombin activation) proteolysis of fibrinogen releases 4 peptides. balanced set of biochemical process. Fibrin fibers are covalently cross-linked into hard clot.

Plasma Proteins END © Copyright 1999-2004 by Gene C. Lavers 23 .

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