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MS-10 Organizational Design Development And Change Block 2 Approaches To Work Design

By Kirit A. D. (MBA, PMP, ITIL, MCTS, SSBB)


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Content
Meaning of Work The Concept of Organizing and Analyzing Work Different Approaches to Organizing And Analyzing Work Work Improvement And Measurement Time And Motion Study Ergonomics Workspace and Architectural Ergonomics Impact of IT on Organizing Work
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Organising And Analysing Work

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Organising And Analysing Work

Meaning Of Work

Meaning of Work
Organising And Analysing Work

Work is any productive activity undertaken to produce a given product or a service It may be defined as the effort or activity of an individual that is undertaken for the purpose of providing goods or services of value to others and that is considered by the individual to be work (Hall 1994).
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Meaning of Work
Organising And Analysing Work

The meaning of work differs from person to person and culture to culture There are as many as six patterns people follow in the defining work
People define work as an activity in which value comes from performance and for which a person is accountable It is generally self-directed and lacking negative effect
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Meaning of Work
People define work as an activity that provides a person with positive personal affect and identity Work contribute to society and is pleasant People define work as an activity from which profit accrues to others by its performance and that may be done in various settings other than a working place Work is usually physically strenuous and somewhat compulsive
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Organising And Analysing Work

Meaning of Work
People define work as primarily a physical activity a person must do that is directed by others and generally performed in a working place. Work is usually devoid of positive affect and is unpleasantly connected to performance People define work as a physically and mentally tiring activity It is generally unpleasant and devoid of positive affect People define work as an activity constrained to specific time periods that does not bring positive affect through its performance
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Organising And Analysing Work

Meaning of Work
Organising And Analysing Work
All these six patterns were studied from six different countries like Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Japan, The Netherland and United states Small percentage of workers in all six countries use either Pattern E or Pattern F to define work Netherland : work is defined most positively and with the most balanced personal and collective reasons for doing it Germany & Japan : work is defined least positively and with the most collective reason for doing it Belgium, Israel & United States: represent a middle position
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Organising And Analysing Work

the amount of time spent on personal activities the employment rate of women with children between 6 and 14 years of age the number of employees working over 50 hours a week

The Netherlands
Organising And Analysing Work
Average income per capita: 40,973 d ollars a year, located in western Europe, bordering the North Sea, with its capital Amsterd am and a population of 16 million people.

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Switzerland
Organising And Analysing Work
Average income per capita: 41,950 do llars a year, a federal republic located i n Central Europe, with its capital Bern and a population of 7.7 million.

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Hong Kong
Organising And Analysing Work
Average income per capita: 45,944 doll ars a year, is one of the administrative regions of China, lo cated in East Asia with a population of 7 million people.

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United States
Organising And Analysing Work
Average income per capita: 46,860 d ollars a year, a federal republic comprisi ng fifty states and is located in North America, its capital is Washington DC and has a population of 313 million.

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United Arab Emirates


Organising And Analysing Work
Average income per capita: 47,439 doll ars a year, is located east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, bordering the Persian Gulf, Abu Dhabi as its capital and a population of 8.2 million people.

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Brunei
Organising And Analysing Work
Average income per capita: 48,333 dollar s a year, is located on the northern coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia, its capital is Bandar Seri Pkawan, and has a population of 388 thousand people.

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Norway
Average income per capita: 51,959 do llars a year, located in northern Europe and occupies the western part of the Scandinavian Peninsula, its capital is Oslo and has a population of 4.9 million people.
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Organising And Analysing Work

Singapore
Organising And Analysing Work
Average income per capita: 56,694 do llars a year, is located on an island in South East Asia, Singapore a s its capital, the population is 4.9 million people.

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Luxembourg
Organising And Analysing Work
Average income per capita: 81,466 doll ars a year, is located in Western Europe between Germany, France, Belgium,w ith a population of 502 thousand people.

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Qatar
Organising And Analysing Work
Average income per capita: 88,222 doll ars a year, its located east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, bordering the Persian Gulf, its capital is Doha, and has a population of 1.8 million people.

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The Happiest Countries In The World


Organising And Analysing Work
10. Sweden > Life satisfaction score: 7.3 > Employment rate: 73% (5th highest) > Self-reported good health: 79% (9th highest) > Employees working long hours: 1.28% (3rd lowest) > Disposable income: $26,633 (11th highest) > Educational attainment: 86% (9th highest) > Life expectancy: 81.5 years (7th highest) 9. Canada > Life satisfaction score: 7.4 > Employment rate: 72% (7th highest) > Self-reported good health: 88% (3rd highest) > Employees working long hours: 3.91% (11th lowest) > Disposable income: $27,138 (8th highest) > Educational attainment: 88% (5th highest) > Life expectancy: 80.8 years (13th highest)

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The Happiest Countries In The World


Organising And Analysing Work
8. Australia > Life satisfaction score: 7.4 > Employment rate: 72% (9th highest) > Self-reported good health: 85% (5th highest) > Employees working long hours:13.99% (4th highest) > Disposable income: $26,927 (9th highest) > Educational attainment: 71% (tied12th lowest) > Life expectancy: 81.8 years (5th highest) 7. Finland > Life satisfaction score: 7.4 > Employment rate: 68% (14th highest) > Self-reported good health: 68% (15th lowest) > Employees working long hours: 3.66% (8th lowest) > Disposable income: $24,958 (14th highest) > Educational attainment: 82% (tied12th highest) > Life expectancy: 80.2 years (16th lowest)

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The Happiest Countries In The World


Organising And Analysing Work
6. Israel > Life satisfaction score: 7.4 > Employment rate: 60% (11th lowest) > Self-reported good health: 81% (7th highest) > Employees working long hours: 18.92% (3rd highest) > Disposable income: n/a > Educational attainment: 82% (tied-12th highest) > Life expectancy: 81.7 years (6th highest) 5. Austria > Life satisfaction score: 7.5 > Employment rate: 72% (8th highest) > Self-reported good health: 69% (17th lowest) > Employees working long hours: 9.02% (10th highest) > Disposable income: $27,541 (7th highest) > Educational attainment: 82% (tied12th highest) > Life expectancy: 80.7 (22nd lowest)

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The Happiest Countries In The World


Organising And Analysing Work
4. Switzerland > Life satisfaction score: 7.5 > Employment rate: 79% (1st highest) > Self-reported good health: 87% (4th highest) > Employees working long hours: 5.87% (17th highest) > Disposable income: $27,756 (5th most) > Educational attainment: 87% (8th highest) > Life expectancy: 82.6 (2nd highest) 3. Netherlands > Life satisfaction score: 7.5 > Employment rate: 75% (3rd highest) > Self-reported good health: 77% (11th highest) > Employees working long hours: 0.68% (2nd lowest) > Disposable income: $25,740 (13th highest) > Educational attainment: 73% (15th lowest) > Life expectancy: 80.8 (14th highest)

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The Happiest Countries In The World


Organising And Analysing Work
2. Norway > Life satisfaction score: 7.6 > Employment rate: 75% (tied, 3rd highest) > Self-reported good health: 80% (8th highest) > Employees working long hours: 2.66% (5th lowest) > Disposable income: $30,465 (3rd highest) > Educational attainment: 81% (tied15th highest) > Life expectancy:81.2 (10th highest) 1. Denmark > Life satisfaction score: 7.8 > Employment rate: 73% (6th highest) > Self-reported good health: 71% (17th highest) > Employees working long hours: 1.92% (4th lowest) > Disposable income: $23,213 (15th lowest) > Educational attainment: 76% (18th lowest) > Life expectancy: 79.3 (11th lowest)

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The concept of Organizing And Analyzing Work


Organising And Analysing Work
The goal accomplishment of an organization requires work to be done in many different areas and highly specialized knowledge and experience Hence the work is divided among people, work units such as divisions, departments and groups Organizing work refer how to arrange matters so that people can work in concert to get the work done, division of work between people and groups, the work done by managers at different levels and coordinating the work of people and groups to make possible to realize the goal of the organization It includes issues like:25

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The concept of Organizing And Analyzing Work


Organising And Analysing Work
Organization charts: organization chart is a form of line diagram. It indicates the arrangement of work units, the delegation of work (that is the delegation of responsibility) and work units in relation to each other Division of Work : the work is divided among people and work units such as divisions, departments or groups. The head of each work unit is in charge for the work done by his unit as well as for the work he does himself Organising the work done (responsibility carried) at different levels Maintaining relationships between people at different levels Coordinating work between people etc.
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Different Approaches To Organizing And analyzing Work


Organising And Analysing Work

The ancient approach The approach during the industrial revolution period The scientific management approach Fordism The human relation approach The socio technical systems approach Modern
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Different Approaches To Organizing And analyzing Work


Organising And Analysing Work

The ancient approach

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Different Approaches To Organizing And analyzing Work


Organising And Analysing Work

The approach during the industrial revolution period

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Different Approaches To Organizing And analyzing Work


Organising And Analysing Work

The scientific management approach

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Different Approaches To Organizing And analyzing Work


Organising And Analysing Work

Fordism

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Different Approaches To Organizing And analyzing Work


Organising And Analysing Work

The human relation approach

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Different Approaches To Organizing And analyzing Work


Organising And Analysing Work

The socio technical systems approach

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Different Approaches To Organizing And analyzing Work


Organising And Analysing Work

Modern
Human Relation Motivation Behavior Contingent(Depending) variables

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Work Improvement And Measurement


Organising And Analysing Work

Work Improvement Work Measurement Work Measurement Vs. Work Improvement

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Work Improvement And Measurement Work Improvement


Organising And Analysing Work

Study of work, simplification and standardization of methods, equipment and working condition Work improvement not only improves work efficiency, but also improves human comfort and satisfaction This is also known as human engineering or ERGONOMICS
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Work Improvement And Measurement Work Measurement


Assessing the time content of a job performed by an operator to determine the proper time to be allowed and the efforts required for the efficient performance of a job R. M. Curie has defined the work measurement as application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance
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Organising And Analysing Work

Work Improvement And Measurement


Organising And Analysing Work

Work Measurement Vs. Work Improvement

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Time And Motion Study


Organising And Analysing Work
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Time And Motion Study


Organising And Analysing Work

Objectives of Work Study



Effective use of manpower Effective use of methods, machines and equipment Effective layout of plant Elimination of unnecessary human motion Simplification and standardization of operations Measurement of time required to perform an operation and establishment of standard level of performance for each worker
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Time And Motion Study Motion Study


Organising And Analysing Work
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Time And Motion Study Therblig analysis


Organising And Analysing Work
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Time And Motion Study Micromotion Study


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Time And Motion Study Principles of Motion Economy


Organising And Analysing Work

Principles of minimum movement Principles of simultaneous and symmetrical movement Principles of rhythmic movement

Principles of natural movement Principles of habitual movement

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Time And Motion Study Time Study


Organising And Analysing Work
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Time And Motion Study Time Study


Objectives

Organising And Analysing Work

The need for time study arises whenever a better method of doing a work is introduced in a plant. Time study endeavors to
Determine a standard days work by finding the amount of time needed by workers to perform the various operations

Provide production data


Procedure of Time Study (Involves following steps) Selection of work to be studied Establishing standardized methods, equipments and working conditions Selecting the average worker who is to be studied while performing the work. Necessary confidence in the worker should be created so as to obtain his cooperation
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Time And Motion Study Time Study


Division of work into elements suitable for time study

Organising And Analysing Work

Studying the operator doing the job. For the validity of the time study results, it is necessary that the analyst should take readings not once but a number of times. The number of times for which time study should be repeated, (ie. Number of cycles) will depend upon the level of confidence needed
Recording time with the help of stop watch on the time study board of the required number of work cycles After the time values for each element for a sufficient number of cycles have been recorded, the mode value is selected. The mode value represents the most frequently appearing time value for an element of the job. Mode values of different elements will be added to get the normal time for doing a job. Normal time is the time required by an average worker working under normal conditions to perform a job Adding allowance to normal time to get the standard time. Relaxation allowances include personal allowance, fatigue allowance, delay allowance etc.
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Time And Motion Study Benefits Of Time Study


Organising And Analysing Work Time study helps in determining the ideal workload of different categories of workers The standards of performance evolved as a result of time study may be used for evaluating the performance of employees Time study helps in designing a suitable incentive wage plan to motivate the workers to increase their productivity Cost standards are very accurate if they are based on the results of time study

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Time And Motion Study Limitations Of Time Study


Organising And Analysing Work
There are variations of the standard time determined by different observers. Even the same observer sets different standard time each time he is asked to conduct the time study Time study involves an element of subjectivity of the observer. Sufficient judgment has to be used by the observer in the choice of a measure of central tendency, deciding the degree of personal allowance and so on The standard time determined by time study may not be accurate because of incorrect performance rating of the operator under study Time study usually has an adverse effect on the workers. They may not show the normal behavior pattern when they are being observed. Even the trade unions may resist stop watch time studies
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Time And Motion Study


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Difference between Time Study And Motion Study


Organising And Analysing Work Basis Time Study Motion Study

Purpose

Scope

Concerned with the determination of time taken by the workers in performing each operation on the job Covers both workers and machines Conducted with the help of a stop watch

Concerned with the motions or movements of workers


Covers only workers

Procedure

Conducted by photographic procedures


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Organising And Analysing Work

Ergonomics

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Man Vs. Machines


Man Excels In Machines Excels In 1 2 3 4 Monitoring (both men & machines) Performing routine, repetitive or very precise operations Responding very quickly to control signals Exerting great force, smoothly and with precision

Organising And Analysing Work

1 2 3 4

Detection of certain forms of very low energy levels Sensitivity to an extremely wide variety of stimuli Perceiving patterns and making generalizations about them Detecting signals in high noise levels

Ability to store large amounts of 5 information for long periods and recalling relevant facts of appropriate moments
ability to exercise judgment where events cannot be completely defined 6

Storing and recalling large amounts of information in short time period

Performing complex and rapid computation with high accuracy


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Man Vs. Machines


Man Excels In Machines Excels In

Organising And Analysing Work

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8 9 10

Improvising and adopting flexible procedures


Ability to react to unexpected lowprobability events Applying originality in solving problems: ie. Alternate solutions

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8 9

Doing many different things at one time


Deductive processes Insensitivity to extraneous factors Ability to repeat operations very rapidly, continuously and precisely to same way over a long period Operating in environments , which are hostile to man or beyond human tolerance

Ability to profit from experience and 10 later course of action Ability to perform fine manipulation, especially where misalignment appears unexpectedly Ability to continue to perform even when over loaded Ability to reason inductively 11

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Time And Motion Study Needs of Human Engineering


Organising And Analysing Work
Human engineering is the study of people at work and of work methods. Its purposes are to : Design human-machine system involving the best combination of human and machine element Study equipments design, hours of work and physical conditions of work Design the machine for its users fitting it to their physiological requirements to minimize fatigue and maximize output Reduce the types of injuries caused by poor design. Ergonomically designed spaces, systems and environment that take into account both the psychological and physical aspects of the people increases efficiency, health and prevent injuries and musculoskeletal disorders Assist in design and operation of man-machine environmental system which will ensure physical and mental ease to the human beings
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Time And Motion Study Needs of Human Engineering


Organising And Analysing Work
Design the machines and equipments in such a manner that not only the users but also those in the vicinity should be protected against dangers of accidents Design the machinery, equipment and tools to suit the human operator and not vice versa. It includes the followings Tools and materials should be arranged at the work-place in such a way that the operator can reach them easily

Machine control should be installed in the working area so that it is within the reach of the machine operator
There should be mechanization of materials handling on and between processing points, particularly for heavy and bulky items The machine operator should be permitted to sit while on the job unless the nature of job requires him to stand. He should be given rest if stand for long hours Good working conditions should be provided to the operators so as to maintain their physical and mental health
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Guidelines For The Design Of Workspaces


Organising And Analysing Work
Encourage a frequent change in posture Avoid forward bending a head and trunk Avoid causing the arms to be held in a raised position Avoid twisted and asymmetrical positions Avoid postures that require a joint to be used for long periods of time at the limit of its range of motion Provide adequate back support for all seats Where muscular force must be exerted the limbs should be in a position of greatest strength Test your workspace layouts
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Guidelines For The Design Of Workspaces


Organising And Analysing Work
Architectural Ergonomics can be incorporated into an organization by Facilitating employees in participative design processes Design audits Ergonomics training

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Guidelines For The Design Of Workspaces Digital Human Simulation and Ergonomics
Organising And Analysing Work
Demarcate the exact reach envelope (boundary of the workspace) of human limbs while taking into consideration the ranges of motion Visualize the exact workspace of human limbs Define and plan trajectories in the workspace

Design ergonomic workplaces subject to specified cost functions Facilitate the design of layouts and packaging
Verify measured data and validate human models Predict realistic postures Optimize designs based on specified cost functions. Cost functions representing dexterity, reach ability, energy, force and others have been developed and integrated with optimization code to address ergonomics design problems
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Impact of Information Technology On Organising Work


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Impact of Information Technology On Organising Work


Organising And Analysing Work

Satellite Location is an attempt to reduce the office space. Satellite locations are networked together to form a cohesive structure. Expensive large corporate centers have been reduced in size and only a token image presence is kept in prestige locations

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Impact of Information Technology On Organising Work


Organising And Analysing Work Hot Desking And Hoteling is another attempt to reduce office space and hence the cost of fixed assets. Employees simply plug in to office space with docking facilities for laptop computers and other support

Telecentres and Telecottages: Telecentres are specific regional centres that support many organisations employees providing all the electronic communications infrastructure needed for effective working. Telecottages are a variation on these theme to support workers in rural or thinly populated locations
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Impact of Information Technology On Organising Work


Organising And Analysing Work Teleworking and Telecommuting: Teleworking could be described as home working with electronic communication support whereas telecommuting could be described as the mobile office in a car, hotel or anywhere, supported by the mobile phone and the laptop computer Telematics (Field systems): a closely related concept to telecommuting but the equipment is more specialized usually fixed in vehicles. Used to communicate information between control centres and mobile workers. It is used by the utilities, service companies and the police etc..
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Impact of Information Technology On Organising Work


Organising And Analysing Work
Computer Supported Co-operative Working (CSCW): It is gaining appreciation as a technology that can be support and enhance a truly enterprise wide working environment The virtual Organisation: many sole traders use agencies that provide a virtual presence for their cllients using CIT(Computer integrated telephony) and by providing office space and electronic facilities when needed Online business and E-commerce: The success and growth of the Internet has made on-line business a cost effective and available technology for many small and medium sized businesses to market their products
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Various Techniques of Job Design


High Job enrichment Sociotechnical system

Job Designs

Impact

Job enlargement
Medium

Job Engineering

Low Low
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Job Rotation
Medium

High
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Complexity

Difference Between Job Enlargement And Job Enrichment


HigherOrder Job enrichment and enlargement

Job Designs

Accent on needs (Focus on depth)

Job enrichment

Routine Job LowerOrder Few

Job enlargement

Many

Number of tasks (Focus on breadth)


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The Job Characteristics Model


Core Job Characteristics Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Critical Psychological States Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for outcomes for the work Knowledge of actual result of the work Moderators Growth-need strength Knowledge and skill Context satisfaction
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Individual Work Outcomes High intrinsic work motivation High-quality work performance High satisfaction with the work Low absenteeism and turnover

Job Designs

Feedback

Details of the MBO Process


Types of Objectives

Routine objectives Innovation objectives Improvement objectives

Job Designs

The objectives must be: Focused on a result, not an activity Consistent Specific Measurable Related to time attainable

MBO Strategy All individuals within an organization are assigned a special set of objectives that they try to reach during a normal operating period. These objectives are mutually set and agreed upon by individuals and their managers Performance reviews are conducted periodically to determine how close individuals are to attaining their objectives Rewards are given to individuals on the basis of how close they come to reaching their goals
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Details of the MBO Process


MBO Stages

Job Designs

Define objectives at board level Analyse management tasks and devise formal job specification , allocate responsibilities and decisions to individual managers Set performance standards Agree and set specific objectives Align individual targets with corporate objectives Establish a management information system to monitor achievements against objectives

MBO : Key Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages MBO programs continually emphasis what should be done in an organization to achieve organizational goals MBO process secures employee commitment to attaining organizational goals

Disadvantages The development of objectives can be time consuming, leaving both managers and employees less time in which to do their actual work The elaborate written goals, careful communication of goals and detailed performance evaluation required in an MBO program increase the volume of paperwork in an organization
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Combination of Workflow Uncertainty And Task Uncertainty


2 Brain surgeon Design Engineer High School Teacher Research Scientist Top Manager Emergency Ward Physician 3 High

Job Designs

Task Uncertainty

Assembly Line Worker Custodian File Clerk 1

Bank Teller Toll Booth Collector Bartender 4

Low

Low

Workflow Uncertainty

High

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The Job Characteristics Model

Job Designs
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The Job Characteristics Model

Job Designs
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The Job Characteristics Model

Job Designs
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The Job Characteristics Model

Job Designs
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The Job Characteristics Model

Job Designs
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The Job Characteristics Model

Job Designs
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