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What is SPSS?

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences:

SPSS is a software package used for conducting

statistical analyses, manipulating data, and

generating tables and graphs that summarize data.

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

Statistical analyses range from basic

descriptive statistics, such as averages

and frequencies, to advanced inferential

statistics, such as regression models,

analysis of variance, and factor

analysis.

Statistical Package for

the Social Sciences

SPSS contains several tools for manipulating

data, including functions for recoding data and

computing new variables as well as merging

and aggregating datasets.

SPSS also has a number of ways to summarize

and display data in the form of tables and

graphs.

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

SPSS is the statistical package

most widely used by

Researchers/ Scientists.

Reasons and background of

SPSS are:

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

An SPSS Program Has 4 Parts:

- Defining

- Selecting

- Statistical

- Saving

Statistical Package for

the Social Sciences

SPSS for Windows consists of five

different windows, each of which is

associated with a particular SPSS file

type.

In analyzing data in SPSS, the Data Editor

and the Output Viewer are mainly used.

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

The Data Editor is the window that

is open at start-up and is used to

enter and store data in a

spreadsheet format.

Statistical Package for

the Social Sciences

The Output Viewer opens

automatically , when you execute

an analysis or create a graph using

a dialog box or command syntax to

execute a procedure.

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

The Output Viewer contains the

results of all statistical analyses and

graphical displays of data. The

Syntax Editor is a text editor where

you compose SPSS commands and

submit them to the SPSS processor.

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

The Data Editor

The Data Editor window displays the

contents of the working dataset. It is

arranged in a spreadsheet format that

contains variables in columns and cases

in rows.

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

Datasets that are currently open are called

working datasets and all data manipulations,

statistical functions, and other SPSS procedures

operate on these datasets.

The Data Editor contains several menu items

that are useful for performing various operations

on your data. Here is the Data Editor, containing

the Employee data. sav dataset:

Statistical Package for the Social

Sciences

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

Data can be directly entered in SPSS, or a file

containing data can be opened in the Data

Editor.

From the menu in the Data Editor window,

choose the following menu options (or type

Alt+F+O+A):

File

Open...

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

If the file you want to open is not an SPSS data

file, you can often use the Open menu item to

import that file directly into the Data Editor. If a

data file is not in a format that SPSS recognizes,

then try using the software package in which the

file was originally created to translate it into a

format that can be imported into SPSS.

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

The following dialog box is used to generate descriptive

statistics. Here, only the Paste button in the dialog box is

relevant.

Statistical Package for the Social

Sciences

The Output Viewer

All output from statistical analyses is printed to the Output

Viewer window as well as other useful information.

When you execute a command for a statistical analysis,

regardless of whether you used syntax or dialog boxes,

the output will be printed in the Output Viewer. Some

other output that you may want to have printed to the

Output Viewer are command syntax, titles, and error

messages.

The Output Viewer is shown below:

Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences

SPSS

SPSS

This figure shows the Options

dialog box with the Draft Viewer tab

selected, to choose which options

you want to appear in the Output

Viewer. Most commands are

selected by default. Here, the

SPSS

Importing Data From Excel Files

Data can be imported into SPSS from

Microsoft Excel and several other

applications with relative ease. Importing

an Excel spreadsheet into SPSS is easy.

If you are working with a spreadsheet in

another software package, you may want

to save your data as an Excel file, then

import it into SPSS.

SPSS

If you have a spreadsheet that is arranged

in a database format (e.g., you have

several tables in your Workbook that are

related through identification fields), there

is another method for importing Excel file

that you might consider that will merge

tables within your database as part of the

import procedure.

SPSS

First, select the desired location on disk

using the Look in option. Next, select

Excel from the Files of type drop-down

menu. The file you saved should now

appear in the main box in the Open File

dialog box. You can open it by double-

clicking on it. You will be presented with

one more dialog box:

SPSS

When you start a session, you see the

Data Editor window.

There are few simple, basic steps to data

analysis.

Get your data into the Data Editor. Select a procedure

from the menus to:

- Create tables

- Calculate statistics, or

- Create charts.

Select the variables you want to use in the analysis.

SPSS

For entering the data in the Data Editor

there are two ways:

1. Enter the data by opening the Data

Editor and Enter the data

2. Import the data from the existing data

file . It may be an Excel Worksheet or a

database like Access or an ASCII File

Let us see how this is done

SPSS

Open the SPSS :

1. Go to File Menu

2. Select Database Capture

- Click on it , you will see three options

- New Query

- Edit Query

- Run Query

3. Select/Click on New Query

SPSS

You will see the screen as shown below, select Excel file option:

SPSS

Select the file/fields you want to capture, and the out come

will be as shown below

SPSS

Calculate HRA as 40% of the Basic .

This can be done in the following way:

1. Select Transform option

2. Select Compute – Following will display:

SPSS

Following will appear:

SPSS

You can sort the data on any field . Let us try to sort on Grade:

1. Go to Grade column

2.Click on Data/Sort Cases

You will see the screen like this:

SPSS

Select on Grade as shown below:

Now Report Preparation:

SPSS

1. Open the SPSS Project

2. Go to Analyze option

3. Select Reports

4. Select Case Summaries

5. Your screen look as shown

in the next screen

SPSS

The screen will look like this after transferring all the fields to variables except

Group variables which is Grade:

SPSS

On clocking on OK, the report will get generated as shown below:

SPSS

Frequency Calculation may be done as shown below:

Click on Descriptive Statistics and then on Frequencies

SPSS

Now Click ok and you will get the result as shown in the next

slide:

SPSS

This is how you can have Grade wise Percent

SPSS

Similarly you can calculate Descriptives

SPSS

Let us try to understand what is Time

Series and how we can use it in SPSS :

Some Definitions ….

A set of ordered observations on a quantitative

characteristic of an individual or collective

phenomenon taken at different points in time. Usually

the observations are successive and equally spaced in

time.

Time Series

SPSS

The values of a variable generated successively in

time. A continuous barograph trace is an example of a

continuous time series, while a sequence of hourly

pressures is an example of a discrete time series.

measured typically at successive times, spaced apart at

uniform time intervals.

SPSS

With following steps we can create a Time Series:

Time Series

2. Then Click on ok

3. Report will be generated.

SPSS

Frequency Distribution:

Some Definitions

to the attributes of an observed variable.

FOR EXAMPLE, a frequency distribution of a

class of 45 students may indicate that 25 were

male and 20 were females.

SPSS

Frequency Distribution:

A tabulation of scores from high to low, or low to high,

showing the number of individuals who obtain each

score or whose scores fall in each score interval.

Frequency distributions are used to determine tables

of percentile ranks.

show the number of times an event occurs in a

particular way.

SPSS cumulative relative

class class absolute relative absolute cumulative

interval mark frequency frequency frequency frequency

80.00-89.99 85 0 0 99 0.99

SPSS

A frequency distribution is a tabular arrangement

of data whereby the data is grouped into different

intervals, and then the number of observations that

belong to each interval is determined. Data that is

presented in this manner are known as grouped

data.

SPSS

For Descriptive Frequency – this type of out put can be

generated.

SPSS

Similarly Explore can be created.

SPSS

Reports for Cross tab will look this.

SPSS

This is an example of General table

SPSS

You can t- test report like this;

Univariate test

SPSS

SPSS

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