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# SPSS What is SPSS?

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences:

SPSS is a software package used for conducting statistical analyses, manipulating data, and generating tables and graphs that summarize data.

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

Statistical analyses range from basic descriptive statistics, such as averages and frequencies, to advanced inferential statistics, such as regression models, analysis of variance, and factor analysis.

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

SPSS contains several tools for manipulating data, including functions for recoding data and computing new variables as well as merging and aggregating datasets. SPSS also has a number of ways to summarize and display data in the form of tables and graphs.

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

SPSS is the statistical package most widely used by Researchers/ Scientists. Reasons and background of SPSS are:

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

An SPSS Program Has 4 Parts:

- Defining - Selecting - Statistical - Saving

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

SPSS for Windows consists of five different windows, each of which is associated with a particular SPSS file type. In analyzing data in SPSS, the Data Editor and the Output Viewer are mainly used.

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

The Data Editor is the window that is open at start-up and is used to enter and store data in a spreadsheet format.

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

The Output Viewer opens automatically , when you execute an analysis or create a graph using a dialog box or command syntax to execute a procedure.

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

The Output Viewer contains the results of all statistical analyses and graphical displays of data. The Syntax Editor is a text editor where you compose SPSS commands and submit them to the SPSS processor.

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

The Data Editor

The Data Editor window displays the contents of the working dataset. It is arranged in a spreadsheet format that contains variables in columns and cases in rows.

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

Datasets that are currently open are called working datasets and all data manipulations, statistical functions, and other SPSS procedures operate on these datasets. The Data Editor contains several menu items that are useful for performing various operations on your data. Here is the Data Editor, containing the Employee data. sav dataset:

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Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

Data can be directly entered in SPSS, or a file containing data can be opened in the Data Editor. From the menu in the Data Editor window, choose the following menu options (or type Alt+F+O+A): File Open...

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

If the file you want to open is not an SPSS data file, you can often use the Open menu item to import that file directly into the Data Editor. If a data file is not in a format that SPSS recognizes, then try using the software package in which the file was originally created to translate it into a format that can be imported into SPSS.

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

The following dialog box is used to generate descriptive statistics. Here, only the Paste button in the dialog box is relevant.

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**Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
**

The Output Viewer

All output from statistical analyses is printed to the Output Viewer window as well as other useful information. When you execute a command for a statistical analysis, regardless of whether you used syntax or dialog boxes, the output will be printed in the Output Viewer. Some other output that you may want to have printed to the Output Viewer are command syntax, titles, and error messages. The Output Viewer is shown below:

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Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

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SPSS

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SPSS

This figure shows the Options dialog box with the Draft Viewer tab selected, to choose which options you want to appear in the Output Viewer. Most commands are selected by default. Here, the

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SPSS

Importing Data From Excel Files

Data can be imported into SPSS from Microsoft Excel and several other applications with relative ease. Importing an Excel spreadsheet into SPSS is easy. If you are working with a spreadsheet in another software package, you may want to save your data as an Excel file, then import it into SPSS.

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SPSS

If you have a spreadsheet that is arranged in a database format (e.g., you have several tables in your Workbook that are related through identification fields), there is another method for importing Excel file that you might consider that will merge tables within your database as part of the import procedure.

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SPSS

First, select the desired location on disk using the Look in option. Next, select Excel from the Files of type drop-down menu. The file you saved should now appear in the main box in the Open File dialog box. You can open it by doubleclicking on it. You will be presented with one more dialog box:

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SPSS

When you start a session, you see the Data Editor window.

There are few simple, basic steps to data analysis.

Get your data into the Data Editor. Select a procedure from the menus to: - Create tables - Calculate statistics, or - Create charts. Select the variables you want to use in the analysis.

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SPSS

For entering the data in the Data Editor there are two ways:

1. Enter the data by opening the Data Editor and Enter the data 2. Import the data from the existing data file . It may be an Excel Worksheet or a database like Access or an ASCII File Let us see how this is done

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SPSS

Open the SPSS :

1. Go to File Menu 2. Select Database Capture - Click on it , you will see three options - New Query - Edit Query - Run Query 3. Select/Click on New Query

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You will see the screen as shown below, select Excel file option:

SPSS

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SPSS

Select the file/fields you want to capture, and the out come will be as shown below

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**Calculate HRA as 40% of the Basic . This can be done in the following way:
**

1. Select Transform option 2. Select Compute – Following will display:

SPSS

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Following will appear:

SPSS

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SPSS

You can sort the data on any field . Let us try to sort on Grade:

1. Go to Grade column 2.Click on Data/Sort Cases You will see the screen like this:

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SPSS

Select on Grade as shown below:

Ok , clicking on Ok, the table gets sorted on Grades.

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**Now Report Preparation:
**

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

SPSS

Open the SPSS Project Go to Analyze option Select Reports Select Case Summaries Your screen look as shown in the next screen

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The screen will look like this after transferring all the fields to variables except Group variables which is Grade:

SPSS

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SPSS

On clocking on OK, the report will get generated as shown below:

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**Frequency Calculation may be done as shown below:
**

Click on Descriptive Statistics and then on Frequencies

SPSS

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SPSS

Now Click ok and you will get the result as shown in the next slide:

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This is how you can have Grade wise Percent

SPSS

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SPSS

Similarly you can calculate Descriptives

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SPSS

Let us try to understand what is Time Series and how we can use it in SPSS :

Some Definitions ….

A set of ordered observations on a quantitative characteristic of an individual or collective phenomenon taken at different points in time. Usually the observations are successive and equally spaced in time.

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Time Series

SPSS

The values of a variable generated successively in time. A continuous barograph trace is an example of a continuous time series, while a sequence of hourly pressures is an example of a discrete time series. In statistics, a time series is a sequence of data points, measured typically at successive times, spaced apart at uniform time intervals.

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SPSS

With following steps we can create a Time Series:

1. Click on Transform/ Create Time Series 2. Then Click on ok 3. Report will be generated.

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Frequency Distribution:

Some Definitions A distribution of the count of cases corresponding to the attributes of an observed variable. FOR EXAMPLE, a frequency distribution of a class of 45 students may indicate that 25 were male and 20 were females.

SPSS

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**SPSS Frequency Distribution:
**

A tabulation of scores from high to low, or low to high, showing the number of individuals who obtain each score or whose scores fall in each score interval. Frequency distributions are used to determine tables of percentile ranks. A statistical concept, an arrangement of data to show the number of times an event occurs in a particular way.

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SPSS

class interval 0.00- 9.99 10.00-19.99 20.00-29.99 30.00-39.99 40.00-49.99 50.00-59.99 60.00-69.99 70.00-79.99 80.00-89.99 90.00-99.99 class mark 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 absolute frequency 1 3 8 18 24 22 15 8 0 1 relative frequency 0.01 0.03 0.08 0.18 0.24 0.22 0.15 0.08 0 0.01 cumulative absolute frequency 1 4 12 30 54 76 91 99 99 100 relative cumulative frequency 0.01 0.04 0.12 0.3 0.54 0.76 0.91 0.99 0.99 1

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SPSS

A frequency distribution is a tabular arrangement of data whereby the data is grouped into different intervals, and then the number of observations that belong to each interval is determined. Data that is presented in this manner are known as grouped data.

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SPSS

For Descriptive Frequency – this type of out put can be generated.

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Similarly Explore can be created.

SPSS

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Reports for Cross tab will look this.

SPSS

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SPSS

This is an example of General table

Similarly other tables like Multiple tables etc. can be generated.

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SPSS

You can t- test report like this;

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Univariate test

SPSS

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SPSS

Thank You

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