SPSS What is SPSS?

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences:
SPSS is a software package used for conducting statistical analyses, manipulating data, and generating tables and graphs that summarize data.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Statistical analyses range from basic descriptive statistics, such as averages and frequencies, to advanced inferential statistics, such as regression models, analysis of variance, and factor analysis.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
SPSS contains several tools for manipulating data, including functions for recoding data and computing new variables as well as merging and aggregating datasets. SPSS also has a number of ways to summarize and display data in the form of tables and graphs.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
SPSS is the statistical package most widely used by Researchers/ Scientists. Reasons and background of SPSS are:

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
An SPSS Program Has 4 Parts:
- Defining - Selecting - Statistical - Saving

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
SPSS for Windows consists of five different windows, each of which is associated with a particular SPSS file type. In analyzing data in SPSS, the Data Editor and the Output Viewer are mainly used.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
The Data Editor is the window that is open at start-up and is used to enter and store data in a spreadsheet format.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
The Output Viewer opens automatically , when you execute an analysis or create a graph using a dialog box or command syntax to execute a procedure.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
The Output Viewer contains the results of all statistical analyses and graphical displays of data. The Syntax Editor is a text editor where you compose SPSS commands and submit them to the SPSS processor.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
The Data Editor
The Data Editor window displays the contents of the working dataset. It is arranged in a spreadsheet format that contains variables in columns and cases in rows.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Datasets that are currently open are called working datasets and all data manipulations, statistical functions, and other SPSS procedures operate on these datasets. The Data Editor contains several menu items that are useful for performing various operations on your data. Here is the Data Editor, containing the Employee data. sav dataset:

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Data can be directly entered in SPSS, or a file containing data can be opened in the Data Editor. From the menu in the Data Editor window, choose the following menu options (or type Alt+F+O+A): File Open...

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
If the file you want to open is not an SPSS data file, you can often use the Open menu item to import that file directly into the Data Editor. If a data file is not in a format that SPSS recognizes, then try using the software package in which the file was originally created to translate it into a format that can be imported into SPSS.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
The following dialog box is used to generate descriptive statistics. Here, only the Paste button in the dialog box is relevant.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
The Output Viewer
All output from statistical analyses is printed to the Output Viewer window as well as other useful information. When you execute a command for a statistical analysis, regardless of whether you used syntax or dialog boxes, the output will be printed in the Output Viewer. Some other output that you may want to have printed to the Output Viewer are command syntax, titles, and error messages. The Output Viewer is shown below:

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
This figure shows the Options dialog box with the Draft Viewer tab selected, to choose which options you want to appear in the Output Viewer. Most commands are selected by default. Here, the

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
Importing Data From Excel Files
Data can be imported into SPSS from Microsoft Excel and several other applications with relative ease. Importing an Excel spreadsheet into SPSS is easy. If you are working with a spreadsheet in another software package, you may want to save your data as an Excel file, then import it into SPSS.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
If you have a spreadsheet that is arranged in a database format (e.g., you have several tables in your Workbook that are related through identification fields), there is another method for importing Excel file that you might consider that will merge tables within your database as part of the import procedure.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
First, select the desired location on disk using the Look in option. Next, select Excel from the Files of type drop-down menu. The file you saved should now appear in the main box in the Open File dialog box. You can open it by doubleclicking on it. You will be presented with one more dialog box:

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
When you start a session, you see the Data Editor window.
There are few simple, basic steps to data analysis.
Get your data into the Data Editor. Select a procedure from the menus to: - Create tables - Calculate statistics, or - Create charts. Select the variables you want to use in the analysis.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
For entering the data in the Data Editor there are two ways:
1. Enter the data by opening the Data Editor and Enter the data 2. Import the data from the existing data file . It may be an Excel Worksheet or a database like Access or an ASCII File Let us see how this is done

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
Open the SPSS :
1. Go to File Menu 2. Select Database Capture - Click on it , you will see three options - New Query - Edit Query - Run Query 3. Select/Click on New Query

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

You will see the screen as shown below, select Excel file option:

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
Select the file/fields you want to capture, and the out come will be as shown below

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Calculate HRA as 40% of the Basic . This can be done in the following way:
1. Select Transform option 2. Select Compute – Following will display:

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Following will appear:

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
You can sort the data on any field . Let us try to sort on Grade:
1. Go to Grade column 2.Click on Data/Sort Cases You will see the screen like this:

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
Select on Grade as shown below:

Ok , clicking on Ok, the table gets sorted on Grades.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Now Report Preparation:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

SPSS

Open the SPSS Project Go to Analyze option Select Reports Select Case Summaries Your screen look as shown in the next screen

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

The screen will look like this after transferring all the fields to variables except Group variables which is Grade:

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
On clocking on OK, the report will get generated as shown below:

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Frequency Calculation may be done as shown below:
Click on Descriptive Statistics and then on Frequencies

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
Now Click ok and you will get the result as shown in the next slide:

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

This is how you can have Grade wise Percent

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
Similarly you can calculate Descriptives

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
Let us try to understand what is Time Series and how we can use it in SPSS :
Some Definitions ….
A set of ordered observations on a quantitative characteristic of an individual or collective phenomenon taken at different points in time. Usually the observations are successive and equally spaced in time.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Time Series

SPSS

The values of a variable generated successively in time. A continuous barograph trace is an example of a continuous time series, while a sequence of hourly pressures is an example of a discrete time series. In statistics, a time series is a sequence of data points, measured typically at successive times, spaced apart at uniform time intervals.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
With following steps we can create a Time Series:
1. Click on Transform/ Create Time Series 2. Then Click on ok 3. Report will be generated.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Frequency Distribution:
Some Definitions A distribution of the count of cases corresponding to the attributes of an observed variable. FOR EXAMPLE, a frequency distribution of a class of 45 students may indicate that 25 were male and 20 were females.

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS Frequency Distribution:
A tabulation of scores from high to low, or low to high, showing the number of individuals who obtain each score or whose scores fall in each score interval. Frequency distributions are used to determine tables of percentile ranks. A statistical concept, an arrangement of data to show the number of times an event occurs in a particular way.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
class interval 0.00- 9.99 10.00-19.99 20.00-29.99 30.00-39.99 40.00-49.99 50.00-59.99 60.00-69.99 70.00-79.99 80.00-89.99 90.00-99.99 class mark 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 absolute frequency 1 3 8 18 24 22 15 8 0 1 relative frequency 0.01 0.03 0.08 0.18 0.24 0.22 0.15 0.08 0 0.01 cumulative absolute frequency 1 4 12 30 54 76 91 99 99 100 relative cumulative frequency 0.01 0.04 0.12 0.3 0.54 0.76 0.91 0.99 0.99 1

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
A frequency distribution is a tabular arrangement of data whereby the data is grouped into different intervals, and then the number of observations that belong to each interval is determined. Data that is presented in this manner are known as grouped data.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
For Descriptive Frequency – this type of out put can be generated.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Similarly Explore can be created.

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Reports for Cross tab will look this.

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
This is an example of General table

Similarly other tables like Multiple tables etc. can be generated.

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS
You can t- test report like this;

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Univariate test

SPSS

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

SPSS

Thank You

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful