Developed and described the first theory of Nursing. Notes on Nursing: what it is, What it is not. She focused on changing and manipulating the environment in order to put the patient in the best possible conditions for Nature to act.

She believed that in the nurturing environment, the body could repair itself. client’s environment is manipulated to include  Pure or fresh air  Pure water  Sufficient food supplies  Efficient drainage  Cleanliness  Light (especially direct sunlight)

Florence Nightingale
 She

is considered as the founder of educated and scientific nursing and widely known as "The Lady with the Lamp"  Nursing "is an act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery"

The Florence Nightingale Pledge

I solemnly pledge myself before God and in the presence of this assembly, to pass my life in purity and to practice my profession faithfully. I will abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous, and will not take or knowingly administer any harmful drug. I will do all in my power to maintain and elevate the standard of my profession, and will hold in confidence all personal matters committed to

 Introduced the nature

of Nursing Model. She identified fourteen basic needs. She postulated that the unique function of the nurse is to assist the clients, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to healthier its recovery. The clients would perform unaided if they had the necessary



            

1. Breath normally 2. Eat and drink adequately 3. Eliminate body wastes 4. Move and maintain desirable postures 5. Sleep and rest 6.Select suitable clothes - dress and undress 7. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying the environment. 8. Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument. 9.Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others. 10.Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions. 14.Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities.
11.Worship according to one’s faith. 12. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment. 13. Play or participate in various forms of recreation.

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Introduced patient-centered approaches to Nursing Model. She identified twentyone nursing problems. She define nursing as service to individuals and families; therefore to society. Furthermore she conceptualized nursing as an art and a science that molds the attitudes, intellectual competencies and technical skills of the individual nurse into the desire and ability to help people, sick or well, and cope with their health needs.


 Conceptualized

the behavioral system Model . According to her each person as a behavioral system is composed of 7 subsystems .

1. Ingestive – taking in nourishment in socially and culturally acceptable ways. 2. Eliminative – riddling the body of waste in socially culturally acceptable ways. 3. Affiliative – security seeking behavior 4. Aggressive - self-protective behavior. 5. Dependence – Nurturance-seeking behavior 6. Achievement – Master of oneself and

IMOGENE KING (1971-1981)

Postulated the Goal Attainment Theory. She described nursing as a helping profession that assists individuals and groups in society to attain, maintain, and restore health. If this is not possible, nurses help individuals die with dignity. And she viewed nursing as an interaction process between client and nurse whereby during perceiving, setting goals and acting on them,

 Developed the

transcultural nursing model. She advocated that nursing is a humanistic and scientific mode of helping a client through specific cultural caring processes to improve

 Described the four

conservation principles.

1. Conservation of energy. The human body functions by utilizing energy. The human body needs energy producing input (food, oxygen, fluids) to allow energy utilization as output. 2. Conservation of structural integrity. The human body has physical boundaries (Skin and Mucous membrane) that must be maintained to facilitate health and prevent harmful agents from entering the body.. 3. conservation of personal integrity. The nursing intervention are based on the conservation of the individual client’s personality. Every individual has a sense of identity, self worth and self esteem, which must be preserved and enhanced by nurses. 4. Conservation of Social Integrity – the social integrity of the client reflects the family and the

BETTY NEUMAN (1982, 1989, 1992)
 Proposed the health

care system Model. She asserted that nursing is a unique profession in that it is concerned with all the variables affecting an individuals response to stresses, which an intra (within the individual) inter (between one or more other people)

DOROTHEA OREM (1970, 1985)
 Developed the self care

and self care deficit theory. She defined self care as “the practice of activities that individuals initiate and perform on their own behalf in maintaining life, health and well being.” She conceptualized 3 nursing systems as follows:

1. Wholly Compensatory: when the nurse is expected to accomplish on the patient’s therapeutic self-care or to compensate for the patient’s inability to engage in self care or when the patient needs continuous guidance in self care; 2. Partially Compensatory: When both nurse and patient engage in meeting self care needs. 3. Supportive-Educative – the system that requires assistance in decision

 Introduced the

interpersonal model. She identified four phases of the nurse client relationship namely:

1. Orientation – the nurse and the client initially do not know each other’s goals and testing the role each will assume. The clients attempts to identified difficulties and the amount of nursing help that is needed. 2. Identification – the client responds to the professionals or the significant others who can meet the identified needs. 3. Exploitation – the client utilizes all available resources to move toward a goal of maximum health or functionality;

 Conceptualized

the Science of Unitary Human Beings. To Rogers, unitary man is an energy field in constant interaction with the environment.

 She

asserted that human beings are more than and different from the sum of their parts; the distinctive properties of the whole are significantly different from those of its parts.  Furthermore, she believed that human being is characterized by the capacity for abstraction and imagery, language and thought, sensation and emotion.


Presented the adaptation model. She viewed each person as a unified biophysical system in constant interaction with a changing environment. She contended that the person as an adaptive system, functions as a whole through interdependence of its parts. The system consists of input, control processes, output and feedback. She advocated that all people have certain needs which they endeavor to meet in order to maintain integrity. These needs

 Introduced the model in

nursing: What is it? Focusing on the notion that centers around three components of CARE, CORE and CURE. Care represents nurturance and is exclusive to nursing. Core involves the therapeutic use of self and emphasizes the use of reflection. Cure focuses on nursing related to the physician’s orders. Core and

 Conceptualized the dynamic

nurse-patient relationship model. She believed that the nurse helps patients meet a perceived need that the patients cannot meet for themselves. She indicated that nursing actions can be automatic (those chosen for reasons other than the immediate need for help) or deliberative (those resulting from validating the need for help, exploring the meaning of the need, and validating



 Developed the clinical

nursing a helping art model. She advocated that the nurse’s individual philosophy or central purpose lends credence to nursing care. She believed that nurses meet the individual’s need for help through the identification of the needs, administration of help, and validation that actions

JEAN WATSON (1979-1985)
 Conceptualized the human caring model

(Nursing: Human science and Human Care). She emphasized that nursing is the application of the art and human science through transpersonal caring transactions to help persons achieve mind-body-soul harmony, which generates self-knowledge, self control, self-care and self healing.

ROSEMARIE RIZZO PARSE (1981, 1987, 1992 )
 introduced the

theory of human becoming. She emphasized free choice of personal meaning in relating value priorities, cocreating of rhythmical patterns, in exchange with the environment, and

 she postulated the interpersonal aspects of

nursing model. She advocated that the goal of nursing is to assist individual or family in preventing or coping with illness, regaining health, finding meaning in illness, or maintaining maximal degree of health.


 provided the humanistic nursing practice


theory. This is based on their belief that nursing is an existential experience. Nursing is viewed as a lived dialogue that involves the coming together of the nurse and the person to be nursed. The essential characteristic of nursing is nurturance. Humanistic care cannot take place without the authentic commitment of the nurse to being with and the doing with the client. Humanistic nursing also presupposes responsible choices.

 developed modeling and role modeling

theory. The focus of this theory is on the person. The nurse models (assesses), role models (plans), and intervenes in this interpersonal and interactive theory.

 focused on health as

expanding consciousness. She defined consciousness as the info. Capability of the system which is influenced by time, space and movement and is everexpanding.

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