RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 Refers to the over-all operational

pattern of framework that stipulates what information to be collected, from which sources, and by what procedures measurement and analysis of data

 is the blueprint for collection,

Parts of the Research Methodology: 1. Research Design .choose the right research design according to the type of research that will done .

longitudinal) . formalized) By topical (statistical vs. case) By research environment (field vs. laboratory) By time dimension (one-time vs.Classification of Research Designs: By degree of problem crystallization (exploratory vs.

Classification of Research Designs: By communication mode (observational vs. survey) By researcher control of variable (experimental vs. ex post facto) By nature of relationship among variables (descriptive vs. causal) .

the respondents .Parts of the Research Methodology: 2. . The Subjects – the proponent has to explain who and where the subjects will be taken.

Parts of the Research Methodology: 3. Data Gathering Procedure • To sample or not to sample (Census) • Sampling Method • Sample Size .

Sampling is . usually called parameters. population proportion etc. of a population • Examples of parameters are the true population mean. . . . . • a process of selecting a part (sample) from a given population • The primary objective of sampling is to make generalizations about unknown characteristic(s).

Reasons/Advantages of Sampling: • • • • • • Economy/costs Timeliness Provides greater scope or coverage Generates more accurate results Is necessary when sampling is “destructive” Ethical considerations .

This is due to the fact that a sample is just one of many possible samples that can be selected. .An Important Fact about Sampling Different results and hence different conclusions can be arrived when inference about a parameter is made on the basis of a sample.

Probability vs Non-probability Sampling Probability Sampling • Elements are selected for the sample using a probability mechanism (randomization).g. Use of random number tables • Selection of probabilities are known • Selection of probabilities need not be equal Note every one has the chance to be in the sample. but the chance is not necessarily equal. some elements may be selected with a probability of 1/10 and other with a probability of 1/20. . For example. e.

Sampling Frame Mechanism for randomization and observational access to the population I. • • • Types List frame Area frame Telephone numbers for telephone surveys .

Problems usually associated with sampling frame • Missing elements or non coverage • Duplicate listings • Clusters • Blanks .Sampling Frame II.

Types of Probability Sampling  Simple random  Systematic  Stratified  Cluster  Multi-stage Must come from a sampling frame .1.

Non-probability Sampling • Selection of units are solely determined by rules set by the sampler • Haphazard. or accidental sampling • Purposive sampling or expert choice • Quota sampling . convenience.

ISSUE: Which is better? • There is no straightforward answer to resolve the issue outright • Non-probability sampling may be “cheaper” to implement • It is only with probability sampling that one is able to derive objective measures of “errors” and hence make inferences .

. Representativeness is dependent on the sample plan. Sample size affects the sampling accuracy.Sample Size Determination Important: The size of the sample size has nothing to do with its representativeness.

Methods of Determining of Sample Size 1) Arbitrary method – may take on the guise of a “rule of thumb” statement regarding the sample size Ex. 5% of the population 2) Cost-based method – sample size is determined by the budget available .

confidence interval. . and standard error of a mean or a percentage to create a valid sample. sampling distribution.Methods of Determining of Sample Size 3) Statistical analysis approach.is used to analyze sub-groups within a sample 4) Confidence interval approach – applies the concept of variability.

defined as the amount of dissimilarity (or similarity) in respondent’s answer to a particular question. 95 confidence interval 1. The standard deviation indicates the amount of variability in a sample Confidence interval – is a range whose endpoints define a certain percentage of the responses to a question Ex.Variability.96 x the standard deviation .

Sampling distribution – refers to what would be found if the researcher takes many independent samples and plotting the distribution of their means Standard error – is an indication of how far away from the true population value a typical sample result is expected to fall .

01)/margin of error p= largest possible population/proportion Source: Calmorin.Determination of Sample Size – if the sample survey is used and because the total number of cases or population (N) is large. Methods of Research and Thesis Writing . L.58) of 1% level of probability with 0. and Calmorin. sample size must be determined by using a formula: Ss= NV+ [(Se)2 x (1-p)] NSe +[(v)2 x p(1-p)] Where: Ss= sample size N= total # of population V= value (2.99 reliability (level of confidence) Se= sampling error (0. M. 2001.

01)2 x (1-0.58)2 x 0.6564 x 0.50 7+6.58)+(0.50)‫‏‬ = 1806 + 0.50 (0.00005 7 + 1.0001 x 0.50 (1-0.50) 700(0.01)+ (2.6641 Ss = 208 .50)‫‏‬ = 1806+0.Example: Let: Ss= NV+ [(Se)2 x (1-p)] NSe +[(V)2 x p(1-p)] Ss = 700 (2.

observation schedule. or rating scale. checklist. Inferential analysis . 5. Research Instrument – either questionnaire. Data Analysis.4.Descriptive analysis. interview schedule.

Types of Measurement Scales Knowledge of the different types of variables and the way they are measured plays a crucial role in research. Why? Because it will determine • How the data can be analyzed • What statistical tests can be applied to the data • What interpretations can be made • How the data can be presented • What conclusions can be drawn .

Types of Measurement Scales: 1) Nominal or classificatory scale – enables the classification of individuals.. Example: water and tree have only 1 sub-group whereas gender have 2 e. male & female . objects or responses based on a common/shared property or characteristic. A variable measured on a nominal scale may have one.g. two or more sub-categories depending upon the extent of variation.

responses or a property into sub-groups on the basis of a common characteristic. average. They are arranged in ascending or descending order Example: Income. objects.Agree.Types of Measurement Scales: 2) Ordinal or Ranking scale – has all the properties of a nominal scale plus one of its own. Attitudes. Besides categorizing individuals. it ranks the sub-groups intro a certain order. Disagree .above average. Neutral. Sub-groups have a relationship to one another. below average.

It has an arbitrary starting and terminating point. objects.Types of Measurement Scales: 3) Interval scale – has all the properties of an ordinal scale plus it enables the individuals. 32 ˚ Fahrenheit . 31-40. 41-50 etc. 21-30.) . Example: Temperature: 0 ˚ Centigrade. Thurstone Attitudinal Scale (10-20. responses. or properties to be placed at equally spaced intervals in relation to the spread of the variable.

Actual Age. a zero point.Types of Measurement Scales: 4) Ratio scale – has all the properties of an interval scale plus it has a fixed starting point e.g. Height etc. The ratio scale can be used for mathematical operations.. . Example: Actual Income.