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HYDRAULICS

HEAD (ENERGY) LOSSES

PIPE FLOW

SECTION 7

2

INTRODUCTION

1. A pipe is a closed conduit which is used for carrying fluids under

pressure.

2. Pipes are commonly circular in sections.

3. As the pipes carry fluids under pressure, the pipe always run full.

4. The fluid flowing in the pipe is always subjected to resistence due

o shear forces between fluid particles and the boundary walls of

the pipe and between the fluid particles themselves resulting

from the viscosity of the fluid.

5. A certain amount of energy possesessed by the flowing fluid will

be consumed in overcoming this resistence to the flow, there will

always be some loss of energy in the direction of flow.

3

TYPE OF FLOW IN PIPE (1/2)

There are two types of flow in the pipe:

Laminar flow, and

Turbulent flow.

Based on the Osborne Reynold experiment (1883), the

occurrence of a laminar and turbulent flow as governed

by the relative magnitudes od the inertia and the viscous

force.

u

F

F

Force Viscous

Force Inertia

R

t

e

= =

VL

R

e

=

Re = Reynold number

V = Characteristic (representative)

velocity

L = Characteristic linear dimension

= mass density of fluid

= viscosity of flowing fluid, and

= kinematic viscosity (/)

4

Based on the Reynold experiment, he dedided

that:

Laminar flow occured when the Reynolds number

less then 2.000, all turbulence entering the flow

can be damped out by viscosity

Turbulent flow occurred when Reynolds number

greater then 4.000.

When the Reynolds numbers between 2.000 and

4.000, the flow is in transition condition.

TYPE OF FLOW IN PIPE (2/2)

5

CONTINUITY EQUATION

Consider to small section of flow in the tube, the mass flow

entering the tube per second is equal to that flowing out

from the tube per second, as there is no mass flow

crossing the tube, then :

v

2

,

2

v

1

,

1

A

1

A

2

dA

1

dA

2

2 2 2 1 1 1

dA V dA V =

V

1

and V

2

= mean flow velocity at section

1 and 2, respectively

dA

1

andA

2

= cross section area of the tube

1

and

2

= mass density

Continuity equation: A

1

V

1

= A

2

V

2

= Q

6

BERNOULLI EQUATION

Bernoulli equation:

tan kons

g 2

V

g

p

z

2

= +

+

g

p

g 2

V

2

Where:

Z : elevation head

: pressure head

: velocity head

g 2

V

g

p

z

g 2

V

g

p

z

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

+

+ = +

+

Energy equation along the pipe:

For a real fluid, energy losses should be considered, so:

f

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

h

g 2

V

g

p

z

g 2

V

g

p

z + +

+ = +

+

7

LAWS OF FLUID FRICTION

The frictional resistance offered to the low depends on type of flow.

The frictional resistance in the laminar flow is:

1. Propostional to the velocity of flow

2. Independent of the pressure

3. Proportional to the area of surface in contact

4. Independent of the nature of the surface in contact

5. Greately affected by variation of the temperature of the flowing fluid

The frictional resistance of the turbulent flow is:

1. Proportional to (velocity)

n

, n = 1.7 to 2.0

2. Independent of pressure

3. Slighly affected by variation of the temperature of the flowing fluid

4. Proportional to the area of surface in contact

5. Dependent on the nature of the surface in contact

8

HEAD (ENERGY) LOSSES

1. The head or energy losses in flow in a pipe are made up of

friction losses (major losses) and local losses (minor losses)

2. Major losses are caused by forces between the liquid and the

solid boundary (distributed along the length of the pipe)

3. Minor losses are caused by disruptions to the flow at local

features like bends and changes in cross section

4. The distribution of losses, and other components can be shown

by two imaginary lines:

1) The energy grade line (EGL) is drawn a vertical distance

from the datum equal to the total head

2) The hydraulic grade line (HGL) is drawn a vertical distance

below the energy grade line equal to the velocity head

9

MAJOR LOSSES

f

2

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

h

g 2

V

g

p

z

g 2

V

g

p

z + +

+ = +

+

Based on the Bernoulli equation:

2 1

2 1

f

Z Z

g

p p

h +

=

Untuk pipa seragam, v

1

= v

2

Sehingga:

A . g

PL

hf

0

t

=

f 0

f

0

gRS

L

h

gR

= t

= t

gD 2

LV

h

2

f

=

is nondimensional constante

Darcy-Weisbach:

g 2

v

2

1

g 2

v

2

2

h

f

g

p

1

g

p

2

z

1

z

2

S

f

L

HGL

EGL

10

MINOR LOSSES

1. Loss of energy due to sudden enlargement:

2. Loss of energy due to sudden contraction:

3. Loss of energy at the entrance to a pipe:

4. Loss of energy at the exit from a pipe:

5. Loss of energy due to gradual contraction

or enlargement:

7. Loss of energy in the bends:

8. Loss of energy in various pipe fitting:

g 2

V

5 . 0 h

2

L

=

( )

g 2

V V

h

2

2 1

L

=

g 2

V

5 . 0 h

2

L

=

g 2

V

h

2

L

=

g 2

V

k h

2

L

=

( )

g 2

V V

k h

2

2 1

L

=

g 2

V

k h

2

L

=

11

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