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Main religions of the World
• • • Catholic Protestant Orthodox
• • Sunni Shi’ite
• Judaism • Buddhism • Hinduism
Early History of Islam (610-632)
• Mohammad receives word of God • Preaches against oppression of the poor in Mecca • Hegira to Medina—foundation of the Ummah • Victorious return to Mecca • Caliphate founded and spreads Islam
• As societies become more wealthy and educated, belief in the supernatural or divine diminishes • With one major exception
The emergence of the secular state
• America’s Ist amendment
• States with established religions, not US
• France’s secular republic
• No head scarves or large crosses at school
• Ataturk’s Turkey
• Equality of sexes formally recognized and legal system based on Switzerland, not Islam
Islam—the Muslim Brotherhood
• 1920s Muslim Brotherhood founded in Egypt to oppose colonialism and “backsliding Islam” • Became international organization with branches all over Arab world—Hamas, Islamic Party, etc.
• Like Muslim Brotherhood, restoring Islam • Embraced by Saudi ruling family • Spread by means of schools (madrassas) and newspapers throughout middle East and beyond
Middle School official text in Saudi Arabia
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Teachings of the Hadith 1/ It's fate decided by Allah that the Muslims and Jews will fight till the end of the world. 2/ The Hadith predicts for the Muslims God's victory over the Jews. 3/ The victory for the Muslims because they are right, and who ever is right is always victorious, even though most people are against him. 4/ God grants victory to the Muslims if they have a true will, if they unite, hold on to God's sharia, if they go by God's ruling, if they are patient. 5/ The material strength won't be enough to warrant victory, it is necessary to invoke God seek his support. 6/ . It's allowed to demolish, burn or destroy the bastions of the Kufar (infidels)- and all what constitutes their shield from Muslims if that was for the sake of victory for the Muslims and the defeat for the Kufar 7/ Jews and Christians are the enemies of believers they will never approve of the Muslims, beware of them. Questions for discussion 1/ What was the prophecy of the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) in this Hadith? 2/ At the end, who will be victorious? 3/ What should the Muslims arm themselves with against the Jews?
Taliban destroys largest Buddha in the world
American Protestant fundamentalism
• 1980s organizing the “Moral Majority” • Today, opposing foreign aid with birth control • Supporting aid to Israel
• BJP founded in 1980, and in 1990’s rose to majority party
• Shas founded in 1987, supported by Moroccan Jews—favors theocracy based on Jewish law • National Religious Party—all of Palestine was promised to the Jews by God
Fukuyama’s “End of History” and Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations”
• Inherent conflict between Islam and the West?