NO AIR, NO LIFE

5.1 The Composition Of Air
1. Air is everywhere around us

2. Air is colourless that we cannot see it
3. We can feel it when it moves → wind (angin) 4. All living things need air in order to live 5. The Earth is covered by a layer of air called atmosphere

the time of day . It changes according to: .the environment condition . Air is a matter because it occupies space and has mass 7.human activities . The composition of air is not fixed.6.

AIR Gases Other Components Water Vapour Nitrogen Oxygen Dust Carbon Dioxide Microorganisms Inert Gases .

97 % 21% Nitrogen 78% Percentage Of Gases In Air .03% Oxygen Inert gas 0.Carbon Dioxide 0.

Oxygen Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Inert Gases .neon element element compound element Mixture Of Gases AIR .helium .argon .

Combustion .Respiration .Fertilizer Carbon Dioxide .extinguishes both a glowing or burning splinter .Released during respiration and combustion .Oxygen Nitrogen .Photosynthesis .

51) . 50.HOMEWORK Textbook Review Questions (pg 49.

5 Solubility in Slightly soluble Slightly soluble water Property Oxygen 2 3 4 .The Properties Of Oxygen And Carbon Dioxide 1 Carbon Dioxide Colour. tasteless and and smell odourless Effect on red No changes Blue → Red and blue ↓ ↓ litmus paper Neutral gas Acidic gas pH value 7 5. taste Colourless.

Carbon Dioxide does not support combustion . Oxygen supports combustion --Splinters goes out.Oxygen 5 Solubility in sodium hydroxide solution 6 Solubility in Alkaline Pyrogallol solution 7 Effect on a burning wooden splinter Not soluble Carbon Dioxide Highly soluble Highly soluble Splinter burns more brightly.

Oxygen 8 Effect on lime water 9 Effect on Hydrogen Carbonate indicator 10 Density No changes. Remains clear No changes Carbon Dioxide Turns cloudy / chalky Red → Yellow Little denser than air Denser than air .

HOMEWORK Textbook Exercise 5.1 (pg 56) .

1 (pg 54) Investigating the percentage of oxygen in the air .Activity 5.

2007 TITLE : Investigating the percentage of oxygen in the air Objective : To determine the percentage of oxygen in the air Apparatus and Materials : Candle. basin.Textbook pg : 54 Experiment Report 4. gas jar. marker pen. plasticine.7. and gas jar stand .

Procedure: 1. The candle was lighted and covered with the gas jar (figure 5. The gas jar was marked to divide the air volume above the water level into 5 equal parts (figure 5.2 2.3) 4. The water level was marked in the gas jar with a waterproof marker pen 3. The apparatus was set up as shown in figure 5.4) .

2. Water rises one-fifth up the gas jar 3. The percentage of oxygen used for combustion is 1/5 x 100% = 20% Conclusion: The percentage of oxygen in air is approximately 20% . The flame and the water level was observed for a few minutes Observation: 1.5. The candle flame goes off after a short while.

2 (pg 60) .HOMEWORK Textbook Exercise 5.

2007 TITLE : Properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide Objective : To determine the properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide Apparatus and Materials : Test tubes with stoppers. wooden splinter. sodium hydroxide solution. blue and red litmus Papers. basin.7.Textbook pg : 57 Experiment Report 9. lime water and bicarbonate indicator .

7 test tubes was prepared containing oxygen gas and another 7 containing carbon dioxide gas 2. A basin was filled with water 2. Test A to Test F was carried out on the 2 gases Test A: Solubility in water 1.Procedure: 1. A test tube containing oxygen was lowered upside down into the water 3. The stopper of the test tube was removed and .

The test tube was shook gently for a few minutes 4. Step 2 and Step 3 was repeated with a test tube containing carbon dioxide Test B: Solubility in sodium hydroxide solution 1.9 for several minutes 4. Step 2 and Step 3 was repeated with a test . A test tube containing oxygen was lowered upside down into the water (Figure 5. A beaker was filled with sodium hydroxide solution 2.kept it in the position as shown in Figure 5.10) 3.

11) 2.tube containing carbon dioxide Test C: Effect on glowing and burning wooden splinters 1. Step 3 was repeated with the test tube containing carbon dioxide . A glowing wooden splinter was inserted into a test tube containing oxygen (Figure 5. Step 2 was repeated with the test tube containing carbon dioxide 3. A burning wooden splinter was inserted into a test tube containing oxygen (Figure 5.12) 4.

Test D: Effect on litmus paper 1.14) 2. Step 1 and step 2 was repeated with the test tube containing carbon dioxide . Step 1 was repeated with the test tube containing carbon dioxide Test E: Effect on lime water 1.13) 2. The test tube was shook for a while 3. red litmus paper and a strip of moist. A strip of moist. blue litmus paper was inserted into a test tube containing oxygen gas (Figure 5. About 2cm3 of lime water was added into a test tube containing oxygen gas (Figure 5.

Test F: Effect on bicarbonate indicator The steps in Test E was repeated with bicarbonate indicator instead of lime water Observation: Property 1 water Oxygen water rises a little in the test tube Carbon Dioxide water rises a little in the test tube 2 sodium Solution does Solution rises very hydroxide not rise in the high in the test solution test tube tube .

To determine the properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide (Textbook pg 57.58) Property 1 2 Water sodium hydroxide solution Oxygen Carbon Dioxide 3 4 glowing wooden splinter burning wooden splinter 5 6 7 red and blue litmus paper lime water Carbonate indicator .

To determine the properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide Observation : Property Oxygen Carbon Dioxide 1 water water rises a little in the test tube water rises a little in the test tube 2 sodium Solution does Solution rises very hydroxide not rise in the high in the test solution test tube tube .

3 glowing wooden splinter 4 burning wooden splinter Splinter lights up Splinters goes out Splinter Splinters goes out burns more brightly 5 red and blue litmus paper 6 lime water No changes Blue litmus paper turns red. No changes on red litmus paper No changes Turns cloudy / chalky .

7 Carbonate indicator No changes Red colour of indicator turns yellow .

Conclusion: Property 1 Solubility in water 2 Solubility in sodium hydroxide solution Oxygen Slightly soluble Not soluble Carbon Dioxide Slightly soluble Highly soluble .

3 glowing wooden splinter 4 5 6 7 Oxygen Carbon Dioxide supports does not support combustion combustion burning wooden splinter red and blue litmus paper Oxygen is Carbon dioxide is a neutral an acidic gas lime water gas Carbonate indicator .

HOMEWORK Workbook pg 41. 42 .

32) .filtration .hold a magnet near the mixture .use a separating funnel ( Textbook pg 31.WORKBOOK (pg 43) Question 4 – Textbook (pg 32) Question 5 –Notes (pg 15)/ Textbook pg35 Question 6 .evaporation .

WORKBOOK (pg 43) Question 4 a) Glass rod c) Filter paper d) Residue f) Filtrate g) Retort stand .

44.HOMEWORK Workbook pg 43. .

42) 1a) b) c) d) e) survive resources atmosphere habitat .WORKBOOK (pg 41.

3 Oxygen Is Needed For Respiration RESPIRATION Internal Respiration External Respiration Inhaled Air Exhaled Air .5.

This process takes place in the body cells .A process which (External Respiration) involves the exchange of gases between the organism and its environment .Respiration (Internal Respiration) .A chemical process which breaks down food (glucose) to produce energy Breathing (pernafasan) .

Inhaled Air Air that we breath in (Oxygen) Exhaled Air Air that we breath out (Carbon Dioxide) Breathing RESPIRATION Glucose + Oxygen (reactant) Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water (products) .

Living Things Human Fish Frog Plants How Do They Breath ? Nose & Lungs Gills Skin & Lungs Stomata & Lenticels .

Nose / Mouth Trachea Bronchus Bronchiole Alveoli = Inhaled Air = Exhaled Air .

Respiratory Support People Fireman Respiratory Support Tools Oxygen tank Mountain climber Patient in coma Scuba diver Oxygen mask ventilator Oxygen tank .

HOMEWORK Workbook pg 46. 47. 48. 50 . 49.

3 (pg 65.HOMEWORK Textbook Exercise 5. 66) .

51. 52. 53) 1a) Iron sulphide .Workbook (pg 50.

52) 1b) Compound in crucible A Mixture in crucible B No changes Iron filings are attracted to the magnet No changes Sulphur powder dissolves in the solutions A pungent smell gas is Odourless and colourless released gas is released .Workbook (pg 50. 51.

1c)

Observations
Compound in crucible A A new substance is formed Components can be separated by chemical method Mixture in crucible B No new substance is formed Components can be separated by physical method

2a) i) It is hot ii) It is not hot iii) Zinc is a good heat conductor but polythene is a poor heat conductor 2b) i) The bulb lights up ii) The bulb does not lights up iii) Copper can conduct electricity because copper is a good ………….. iv) Cannot. This is because PVC is a poor electrical conductor

3a) The sodium burns brightly and a white substances is formed

b) sodium chloride
c) A compound. Sodium and chlorine combine chemically in a definite ratio and a new substance is formed. d) Electrolysis

4a) A mixture. water and iron fillings do not combine chemically. Sand. figure 4.6) . b) by using a magnet c i) Evaporation ii) Mixture of sand and water (textbook pg 32.

Check Your Answers and Mark Your Workbook Workbook pg 41 – 66 .

HOMEWORK Workbook pg 66 .

4 (pg 72) .HOMEWORK Textbook Exercise 5.

5 Air Pollution (Pencemaran Udara) 1. Air pollutants : harmful chemicals or substances present in the air .5. Air pollution : occurs when the atmosphere contains pollutants 2.

Examples of air pollutants a) smoke b) dust c) carbon monoxide d) sulphur dioxide e) oxides of nitrogen f) lead g) chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) h) carbon dioxide .3.

Burning of rubbish -Burning of fossil fuels .Cigarette smoke .Smoke from motor vehicles .Forest fires .Cause breathing difficulties .No Air Pollutant (bahan pencemaran) Sources (punca) Effect (kesan) 1 Smoke particles and soot .make the eyes feel uncomfortable -Cause haze .

2 Dust .Cement plants . coughing and asthma 3 ↓ 8 Textbook Pg 73 .Construction sites .causes lung cancer.

headache.Construction sites .2 Dust .causes lung 3 .smoke from motor vehicles - cancer.Cement plants Carbon . coughing and asthma causes tiredness. brain damage and death .cigarette smoke monoxide .

Form acid rain from motor vehicles .Kills plants 5 Oxides of nitrogen .smoke .4 Sulphur dioxide -Burning of .damages lung cells coal -Forms acid rain that damages metallic structures and kills aquatic life .

Causes mental retardation in children .6 Lead .damages the kidneys.burning of . leaded petrol heart and brain .

damages .7 chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) .aerosol 8 Carbon dioxide the ozone layer and exposes us to harmful rays from the Sun .Causes the rising of the rubbish -Burning of Earth’s temperature fossil fuels as a result of the greenhouse effect sprays electronics factories .burning of .

7.Textbook pg : 68 Experiment Report 26.2007 TITLE : Finding out whether the size of a container affects the length of time a candle burns IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM : Does the size of a container affect the length of time a candle burns? Hypothesis : The candle in a larger container will burn longer than the one in a smaller container .

20 and the stopwatch was started . candles. A candle was lighted up 2.Constant variable : Type of candle Manipulated variable : Size of container Responding variable : The length of time a candle burns Apparatus and Materials : Gas jar. bell jar. plasticine and stopwatch Procedure: 1. A gas jar was placed over the candle as shown in Figure 5.

Step 1 to step 3 was repeated using a bell jar as shown in Figure 5. The stopwatch was stopped when the flame went out. The length of time taken was recorded before the flame went out Observation : . The length of time taken was recorded 4.3.21 5.

Observation : Container Duration Observation Gas Jar 13 s Candle burns for a short while Inference The small container contains less oxygen the larger container contains more oxygen Bell Jar 1min 22s candle burns for a longer period .

The larger the container.Conclusion: 1. The smaller the container. the shorter the time taken for a candle to burn 2. the longer the time taken for a candle to burn .

. Combustion is a chemical reaction of a substance with oxygen which gives out heat and light. Combustion is commonly known as ‘burning’ 2.5.4 Oxygen Is Needed For Combustion (pembakaran) 1.

3 Combustion only occurs in the presence of i) fuel (combustible material) ii) heat Oxygen iii) oxygen Combustion Heat Fuel 4 Combustion will not occur if any factor above is not present .

There are 2 types of fuels Fuel Carbon Hydrocarbon Coal Charcoal Kerosene Natural gas Petrol Diesel .5.

When carbon burns in air: Carbon + Oxygen burn Carbon dioxide + Heat + Light 7.6. When hydrocarbon burns in air: Hydrocarbon + Oxygen burn Carbon dioxide + water + Heat + Light .

Usage Of Oxygen For Combustion 1. Welding torch for welding (las) metal 3. Rocket launching to space . Steel-making industry (keluli) 2.

gas jar spoon.Textbook pg : 70 Experiment Report 1.8. gas jar covers and lime water .2007 TITLE : Testing the products of combustion of charcoal OBJECTIVE : To determine the products of combustion of a carbon (charcoal) Apparatus and Materials : Gas jar.

The charcoal was inserted into a gas jar when it is burning . 4. The gas jar was shook for a while and the colour of the lime water was observed 3. A little lime water was poured into a gas jar 2. A piece of charcoal was heated in a gas jar spoon with a Bunsen burner.Procedure: 1.

The surfaced of the gas jar was touched 7.5. The charcoal was removed after the flame has gone out 8. Observation : . A little lime water was added into the gas jar and shook. The charcoal was observed 6. The colour of the lime water was observed. 9.

When charcoal is burned.Observation : Test Observation Inference Wall of Becomes hot Heat is released the gas jar Lime water Turns Cloudy Carbon Dioxide is produced. its carbon element combines with the oxygen in air to form carbon dioxide .

Conclusion: 1. The products from the combustion of carbon are carbon dioxide. Carbon + Oxygen burns Carbon dioxide + Heat + Light . heat and light 2.

lime water.8.Textbook pg : 71 Experiment Report 3.2007 TITLE : Testing the products of combustion of kerosene OBJECTIVE : To determine the products of combustion of a hydrocarbon (kerosene) Apparatus and Materials : Beaker. wooden block and anhydrous cobalt chloride paper. kerosene lamp. test tube. . stopper.

The test tube was closed with a stopper and shook .Procedure: 1. A kerosene lamp was lighted up 2. The smoke formed was collected with a test tube 3. A little lime water was added into the test tube 4.

The liquid droplets was tested with anhydrous cobalt chloride paper. The apparatus was set up as shown in Figure 5.5.24 6. Observation : . The kerosene lamp was allowed to burn for a few minutes 7.

Observation : Observation Test Lime Water Inference Turns Cloudy Carbon Dioxide is produced. Blue cobalt chloride paper Are there any liquid droplets on the inner surface of the beaker? . its carbon element combines with the oxygen in air to form carbon dioxide Turns pink Yes Water is produced. When kerosene is burned. When kerosene is burned. its hydrogen element combines with the oxygen in air to form water.

water. The products from the combustion of hydrocarbon are carbon dioxide.Conclusion: 1. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen burns Carbon dioxide + water + Heat + Light . heat and light 2.

48. 46. 47. 49.HOMEWORK Workbook pg 45. 50 .

79) 1a) i) Types of air in the gas jar ii) Time taken for the burning candles to extinguish first iii) Volume of gas jar 1b) Candle in gas jar P extinguish first . 78.Workbook (pg 77.

1c) Oxygen is needed in burning. Exhaled air contain less oxygen than inhaled air 16 % 1d) 2a) i) Presence of organism ii) Colour change of Hydrogen bicarbonate indicator iii) Volume of Hydrogen bicarbonate indicator .

2b) Boiling tube A B C Observation Hydrogen Carbonate turns from red to yellow Hydrogen Carbonate turns from red to yellow Hydrogen Carbonate remains red .

2c) i) The cockroach and germinating seeds released carbon dioxide during respiration ii) The carbon dioxide released changes the colour of indicator from red to yellow 2d) Organism release carbon dioxide during respiration .

73 . 72.HOMEWORK Workbook pg 71.

Steps To Control Air Pollution No 1 Role How to control air pollution Vehicles i) Equipped with catalytic converters to reduce the emission of pollutants ii) Use unleaded petrol 2 Laws Anti-pollution laws must be strictly enforced and obeyed .

3 Factories i) Set up far away from housing area ii) Filter smoke before it is released iii) Less use chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) iv) Build the chimneys as tall as possible so that the smoke and soot are released high in the sky V) Use other sources of energy like wind. solar and hydro .

Saving electricity means less pollutants will be released as less electricity needs to be generated .4 The publics i) Stop open burning ii) Stop smoking iii) use public transport or car pool to reduce cars on the road iv) Avoid using products that releases CFCs into the environment v) Use less electricity.

5 Agriculture i) Advise farmers to reduce the use of pesticides fertilisers ii) Encourage farmers to use biological control ways to kill pests and increase yields .

70 .HOMEWORK Workbook pg 69.

HOMEWORK Textbook Exercise 5.5 (pg 75) .

6 The Importance Of Keeping The Air Clean No 1 How Life Would Be Without Clean Air ? Health Problem i) Headache ii) Skin Diseases iii) Asthma iv) Bronchitis v) Lung and throat cancer .5.

2

Depletion of food resources

Dust and soot on the leaves of plants reduce the rate of photosynthesis, causing less food to be produced by (pengurangan sumber makanan) plants Global warming Or Green house effect i) Carbon dioxide traps heat radiated from the ground and prevents it from the ground and prevents it from escaping into outer space ii) This cause the Earth’s temperature is rising

3

4

Acid rain

i) Causes plants to die

( Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen dioxide) ii) Causes aquatic animals such as fish and prawn to be killed iii) Natural habitats are destroyed

because they become unable to absorb water

iv) Destroy buildings, steel bridges and vehicles

5

Thinning of the ozone layer

i) Ozone layer protects us from the
harmful rays of the sun

ii) CFC can corrode the ozone layer iii) Harmful ultraviolet rays from
the sun can cause - skin cancer - cataract (eyes disease) - lowering of the body’s defence system - reducing the yield of plants

Therefore. it is very important for everyone to practise the habits that keep the clean air .

6 (pg 76) .HOMEWORK Textbook Exercise 5.