6.1 Various Forms of Energy
6.2 Various Sources of Energy 6.3 Renewable and Non-renewable Energy Sources 6.4 The Importance of Conserving Energy Sources

Energy Is The Ability To Do Work

Energy (Tenaga)
1. Energy is the ability to do work ( kebolehan untuk melakukan kerja) 2. All living things (humans, animals and plants) need energy to live 3. All living things obtain energy from the food

8. 7. 6.1 Various Forms Of Energy 1. 5. 2. Kinetic energy (kinetik) Potential energy (keupayaan) Heat energy (haba) Light energy (cahaya) Sound energy (bunyi) Chemical energy (kimia) Electrical energy (elektrik) Nuclear energy (nuklear) .6. 3. 4.

the more kinetic energy it has Potential Energy that has potential a) Compressed Energy to do work because of its spring position (kedudukan) or condition (keadaan) b) Stretched rubber .No 1 Energy Kinetic Energy Ability a) Energy that an object has due to its motion (pergerakan) b) Anything that moves has kinetic energy a) Examples Boy running Ball rolling Car moving b) c) 2 c) The faster the object moves.

3 Heat Energy a) Energy that can raise (meningkat) an object’s temperature (suhu) The hotter the object. the more heat energy it has Hot objects i) Fire ii) Sun iii) Hot coffee b) 4 Light Energy a) Object that gives out light i) ii) iii) Lamp Candle sunlight Radio Door bell Telephone 5 Sound Energy a) Anything that gives out sound i) ii) iii) .

6 Chemical Energy a) Energy that is stored (disimpan) in chemical substances Stored chemical energy is released (dilepaskan) when these substances go through chemical reactions (tindak balas) Energy that is produced by electric charges Use to run electrical products a) Food Battery b) b) c) Petrol 7 Electrical Energy a) i) Fan Lamp television ii) b) iii) .

nuclear fission (splitting up of the atom) (pemisahan atom) .nuclear fussion ( joining together of atoms) ( penggabungan atom) b) a) Making chemical weapons .Atomic bombs .Hydrogen bombs b) Used to produce electrical energy .8 Nuclear Energy a) Energy that is stored in the nucleus of an atom Released when atoms undergo nuclear reaction .

Potential Energy 1 Energy stored in an object before it is use Kinetic Energy Energy produced by an object when it is in motion (pergerakan) Can be found in anything that moves 2 can be found in the items that are i) Compressed (dimampat) Example : mousetrap ii) Stretched (direntang) Example : slingshot iii) Bent (dilenting) Example : diving board iv) Raised (diangkat) Example : pile driver .

Potential Energy 1 Energy stored in an object before it is use Kinetic Energy Energy produced by an object when it is in motion (pergerakan) 2 can be found in the items that are Can be found in anything that moves i) Compressed (dimampat) Example : mousetrap ii) Stretched (direntang) Example : slingshot iii) Bent (dilenting) Example : diving board iv) Raised (diangkat) Example : pile driver .

Example : bouncing ball As the ball falls down Potential Energy decreased Kinetic Energy Increased ↓ As the ball moves upwards increased ↑ decreased ↑ ↓ .

Energy can be transferred (dipindah) and transform (diubahbentuk) . Energy cannot be created (dicipta) or destroyed (dimusnah) 2.Energy Changes 1.

Total energy before change = Total energy after change . Principle of conservation of energy : When a form of energy is converted into other forms of energy. Energy Converter : A medium that changes energy from one form to another (television. alarm clock. the total amount of energy after the conversion is the same as that before the conversion.……) 4.3.

Energy can be classified under 2 groups : Energy Stored in an object Potential Energy Chemical energy Produced by an object Kinetic energy Heat energy Light energy Sound energy Nuclear energy Electrical energy .

Examples : Objects 1 Radio 2 Iron Changes In Energy Electrical energy Electrical energy → → Sound energy Heat energy 3 Torchlight Chemical → electrical → heat + light 4 Plants and solar → chemical → kinetic → heat animals 5 car chemical → kinetic + heat + sound 6 television Electrical → heat + light + sound .

1 (pg 90) .Homework Textbook Exercise 6.

Sources Of Energy 1. Sun is our primary source of energy 2. . This is because all living things depends on the Sun for energy The Sun is the main source of heat and light energy on Earth 3.

4. There are various sources of energy on Earth : Solar Energy Fossil Fuels Water SUN Nuclear Energy (Primary source) Wind Biomass Geothermal .

petroleum and natural gas are burned in power stations to produce electricity 2) Petroleum is used as fuel to run vehicles Natural gas is used as fuel for cooking 3) . coal) 1) How ? Coal. natural gas.Sources Of Energy 1 Fossil Fuels ( petroleum.

2 water In a hydroelectric power station. water is collected in a dam from rain and rivers to turn turbines for generating electricity 1) 3 Wind The kinetic energy in wind rotates the propeller on the windmill A generator then converts the kinetic energy into electrical energy 2) .

oil palm or paddy. rubbish. animal manure) Biomass materials is burned and the heat energy produced is used to produce steam for turning turbines. which then generates electricity .4 Geothermal (extremely hot area deep within the Earth) 1) Geothermal energy can be used to heat water into steam 2) In a geothermal power station. the steam from underground is used to turn a turbine for generating electricity 1) 5 Biomass (wood. waste from sugarcane.

which reflect sunlight and heat energy onto a boiler which then use to generate Electricity 7 Solar Energy (sun) .6 Nuclear Energy When radioactive materials are broken down. nuclear (radioactive energy within them releases a lot of heat energy which used materials like uranium) to produced steam to turn turbines in a nuclear power station to generate electricity A solar power station has mirrors.

Homework Textbook (pg 79. 80. 81) .

79 ) 3a i) Volume of oxygen / size of gas jar ii) The candle is lighted or not lighted iii) The rise in the water level .Workbook ( pg 78.

the water level in the gas jar rises The water level remains constant .3b) Gas jar Observation P Q The candle flame extinguish.

3c) To absorb carbon dioxide which is released by the burning candle 3d) It is a control used for comparison 3e) One fifth of approximately 20% of the volume of air is made up of oxygen .

Homework Workbook (pg 74. 75. 76) .

Happy ^_^ Holiday .

Happy ^_^ Holiday .

2007 1.8. What is energy ? Energy is the ability to do work 2.Monday Exercise (Energy) 27. .

9. .Monday Exercise (Potential Energy) 3.2007 1. What is potential energy ? 2.

. 2. Non-renewable energy sources : Energy that are widely used but cannot be replaced in a short period of time. Renewable energy sources : Energy that is constantly replaced soon after it is being used.Renewable and Non-renewable energy sources 1.

Sources of Energy Non-renewable Renewable Fossil Fuels Radioactive substances Sun Wind Waves Biomass water Geothermal .

Non-renewable energy sources sources 1 Fossil Fuels Formation Fossil fuels are the transformed remains of tiny marine plants and animals of millions of years ago. uses Petroleum : vehicles Coal : Generate electricity a) Natural gas : -Cooking -Plastic products .

d) Heat and pressure from these layers. sand or stone.b) When these animals and plants died. . their decaying remains sank to the bottom of the ocean or swamp they were living in. c) Over the years they were covered with layers of mud. made the remains turn into crude oil and gas in the earth.

e) Oil wells are drilled as deep as 6 miles (9000 m) into the Earth to search for fossil fuels like petroleum and natural gas. 2 Radioactive substances (uranium) a) b) Requires a very long time to form naturally Can be found in stones and rocks under the ground Used to generate electricity and nuclear energy .

Renewable energy sources 1 2 Sources Solar energy (from the sun) Biomass energy (from burning plant and animal materials) Hydro energy (water) Tidal energy (waves) Geothermal energy ( extremely hot area deep within the earth) Wind energy uses 3 4 5 6 Generate electricity .

but produces the same amount of light energy as filament bulb. . b) Air-conditioner: Use intelligent air-conditioners that can detect temperature fluctuations and presence of people.Areas 1 Home Efficient use of energy a) Fluorescent lamp Fluorescent lamps are more energy efficient compared to filament bulbs because it use less electrical energy.

d) Microwave oven: When warming up cooked food. it is more energy efficient to use the microwave oven instead of the normal gas stove.c) Iron Iron many pieces of clothes at one time instead of ironing few pieces at different times. .

coconut husks and other farming by-products. This way. Building Make sure that the frontage of the building faces either the north or the south.2 Industry Use biomass fuel like wood. Thus. 3 . less energy will be used to cool the interior of the building. the area exposed directly to the direct sun will be less. coconut shell.

A certain portion of the energy is lost as heat energy 2. not all the energy is changed into useful energy. Hence. the efficient use of energy means to get the most use of the energy with the minimum loss of energy . Whenever energy is used to do work.How to use energy sufficiently ? 1.

Areas 1 Home Efficient use of energy a) Use Fluorescent lamp instead of filament bulb. . b) Air-conditioner: Use intelligent air-conditioners that can detect temperature fluctuations and presence of people.

c) Iron Iron many pieces of clothes at one time instead of ironing few pieces at different times. d) Microwave oven: When warming up cooked food. use the microwave oven instead of the normal gas stove. .

coconut shell. coconut husks and other farming by-products.2 Industry Use biomass fuel like wood. Building a) 3 Building orientation Building materials Natural light Innovative lighting b) c) d) .

Minimising Negative Effects on the Environment 3. Ensuring Enough Supply of Energy .The importance of Conserving Energy Sources 1. Reduce pollution 2.