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7.

1 HEAT
1. Heat is a form of energy 2. Heat can be used to do work 3. Heat can make things hot

4. Heat is measured in Joule ( J )

5. The primary source of heat is the Sun

Sources Of Heat
1

1)
2) 3)

Combustion Respiration When acid is mixed with alkali

3 Mechanical Rubbing object together (if we rub our palms, our palms feel hot)

Electrical

1) 2) 3)

4)

Electrical kettle Iron Bread toaster Hair dryer

Nuclear

Heat is produced during nuclear reaction, where nuclear energy is converted into heat

Uses Of Heat
1 AREA Home
1) 2) 3) 4)

USES Drying cloths Boiling Cooking Ironing Soldering Bake pottery Electrical power

Industry

1) 2) 3)

Heat And Temperature

Heat (haba)
1 A form of energy inside a substance

Temperature (suhu)
Measurement of the hotness and coldness of a substance.

2 The amount of heat The degree of hotness energy is measured in or coldness of an object joule ( J ) is measured in degree Celsius (0C) or kelvin (K)

Heat (haba)

Temperature (suhu)

3 Measured using bomb Measured using a calorimeter thermometer 4 Transfer from a hot area to a cold area Increased when heated and decreased when Cooled Temperature cannot do work

5 Heat can do work

Bomb Calorimeter

Heat (haba)
6 The heat content of a material depends on its
a) b) c)

Temperature (suhu)
The temperature of a material depends on the movements of its particles.

The faster the particles move, the higher the temperature is

At low temperature, the particles move slowly

1 mass

If 2 objects are made of same material and have the same temperature, the object with a larger mass contains more heat At the same temperature, metals have higher temperature than non metals

2 material

3 temperature If 2 objects are made of the same material and have the same mass, then the object that has a higher temperature has more heat

1 mass

If 2 objects are made of same material and have the same temperature, the object with a larger mass contains more heat
At the same temperature, metals have higher temperature than non metals

2 material

3 temperatur If 2 objects are made of the e same material and have the same mass, then the object that has a higher temperature has more heat

1. Things of the same temperature may not have the same amount of heat.

2. A substance with a higher temperature DOES NOT ALWAYS have more heat energy than a substance with a lower temperature.
3. The amount of heat energy also depends on the volume of a substance

Heat And Temperature

Activity 7.3 (Textbook pg 104)

1)

Substances that have the same amount of heat do not necessarily have the same temperature Substances that have the same temperature do not necessarily have the same amount of heat

2)

HOMEWORK

7.2 Heat Flow And Its Effect

Effect Of Heat 1. Expansion (mengembang) When a solid, liquid or gas is heated, it expands and its volume increase (meningkat). The increase in size is called expansion 2. Contraction (mengecut) When a solid, liquid or gas is cooled, it contracts and its volume decrease (menurun). The decrease in size is called contraction

Why do things expand when heated and contract when cooled ?

Particles are closer together when things are cold and have little energy
Gains heat

Particles are further apart when things are hot and have more energy

Loses heat

Experiment (Effects Of Heat Energy On Solids, Liquids and Gases)

Matter Observation 1 Solid 1) When heated, the metal ball cannot go through the ring 2) When cooled, the metal ball can go through the ring

2 Liquids 1) When the flask is placed in hot water, the level of coloured water in the glass tube rises 2) When the water cools down, the level of coloured water in the capillary tube drops

Gas

3 Gas 1) Heat from hands is transferred to the air particles in the flask. The air expands and pushes into the water in the form of water bubbles.

2) When the air in the flask cools, the air particles contract. The water moves up the capillary tube to fill up the empty space left by the contracted air

Conclusion : Solids, liquids and gases expand when heated and contract when cooled

HOMEWORK

Textbook Exercise 6.3 ( Pg 96 )

Heat Flow
1. Heat flows from a hotter object to a colder object until both objects reach the same temperature 2. Heat can flow through solids, liquids and gases 3. Heat can flow in 3 ways :

Heat Flow
CONDUCTION ( SOLID) CONVERCTION (LIQUID, GAS)

Conduction Convection
1 Medium

Vacuum

solid

Liquid Gas
Heat is transferred by particles which form a convection current

2 Method Heat is transferred from particles to particles

Heat is transferred through vacuum by heat rays in the form of electromagnetic waves Very fast (speed of light)

3 Rate of flow

Slow

fast

Experiment : Conduction
Observation : The thumbtacks fall in sequence from the hot end to the cold end of the metal rod

Conclusion : Heat flows from a region (kawasan) of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature by conduction

HOMEWORK

Natural phenomena involving heat flow

1. Sea breeze
2. Land breeze 3. The warming of the Earth by the Sun

Sea Breeze (day) 1. During the day, the land gets hot faster than the sea. 2. This causes the air above the land to heat up, expand and rise.

1.

Land Breeze (night) During the night, the land cools down faster than the sea.

2. Due to this, the sea becomes warmer than the land.

3. As the air above the land rises, cooler air from 3. The air above the sea blows in to take the sea becomes its place. This causes sea warmer and rises. breeze.

4. This is the reason why the breeze blows from the sea to land during the day.

4. When the air above the sea rises, the air from the land rushes towards the sea, replacing the rising warm air. 5. This causes land breeze, which blows from the land towards the sea.

The warming of the Earth by the Sun

1.

The heat from the Sun reaches the Earth by radiation The outer space is a vacuum Hence, the heat from the Sun is transferred by radiation to the Earth

2.

3.

HOMEWORK

Workbook pg : 80, 81

Heat Conductors And Insulators

1.

Heat Conductors :
Substances which allow (membenarkan) heat to pass through easily (example: metals)

2. Heat Insulators
Substances that prevent (mengelakkan) heat from passing through (example: non-metals)

Heat Conductor 1 Definition Substances which allow (membenarkan) heat to pass through easily
2 Examples

Heat Insulator Substances that prevent (mengelakkan) heat from passing through

3 uses

1.

Cooking utensils
Wire gauze

1.

Handles of cooking utensils

Cloths and blankets containers

2.

2. 3.

3.

4.

7.3 The Effects Of Heat On Matter

1.

Heating or cooling can cause changes in the states of matter or changes in temperature
Melting Point Freezing Point Boiling Point

The temperature The temperature The temperature at which a at which a at which a substance melts substance substance boils freezes Different substances have different melting, freezing and boiling points

Change In State Of Matter

Heat

Liquid Liquid Gas Liquid Gas Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Solid Gas
Solid

Experiment : Investigating Different Materials As Heat Insulators

Observation :
Materials 1 2 Aluminum 10 min 74 72 71 72 Temperature (0c) 20 min 30 min 68 62 66 66 65 60 60 58 35 min 59 57 59 55

Woolen Cloth 3 Newspaper 4 Styrofoam

HOMEWORK

Workbook pg: 82 - 89

7.4 Application Of Expansion And Contraction Of Matter

1 Thermometer
a)

Mercury expands when heated and the level of mercury in the capillary tube rises

b) Mercury contracts when cooled and the level of mercury in the capillary tube drops

2 Bimetallic strips in a fire alarm

a) b)

Consists of 2 different metals (iron and brass), bends when heated. It is used as thermostat and in fire alarms to complete or break electric circuits On a hot day, the tracks expand On a cool day, the gap can be seen clearly

3 Gaps in railway tracks

a) b)

4 Rollers of a) One of bridges end is fixed while steel the other end is free to move over bridges rollers b) The rollers are use for expansion and contraction during hot or cool day

Heat Conductor 1 Definition Substances which allow (membenarkan) heat to pass through easily
2 Examples

Heat Insulator Substances that prevent (mengelakkan) heat from passing through

7.5 Absorption And Release of Heat

1.

Different surfaces (permukaan) absorb and give out heat at different rates. Good heat absorber (dark and dull surface) Object that absorbs(menyerap) heat easily

2.

3. Good heat radiator (dark and dull surface) Object that gives out(melepas) heat easily

Dark, dull objects White, shiny objects Absorbs Heat Gives Out Heat Good Good Poor Poor

A Dark and dull surface absorbs and gives out heat better than a white and shiny surface

HOMEWORK

7.6 The Benefits Of Heat Flow

1.

Convection current helps to improve air circulation Ventilation holes, windows and doors in houses enable hot air to flow out and cool air to move in.
The air movement can cool down buildings

2.

3.

4. The principle of conduction of heat used to cook food

5. Heat insulator are used as handles of cooking utensils 6. Heat flows by radiation help to dry our cloths 7. Heat transfer by radiation help to enable the heat from the sun to reach the Earth

HOMEWORK

HOMEWORK