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Sieve Column

Design


Given: Ethanol-Water System

D = 300,000 L/day
X
F
= 0.10 by volume
X
B
= 0.01 % by volume
X
D
= azeotropic concentration
95.6 % ETOH - 4.4 % H
2
0 by wt.

Operating Conditions:
25
o
C and 1 atm
Seive Column Design

TRAY
Tray Spacing, Tray thickness, Number of
holes, hole diameter, Pitch
COLUMN
Number of Equilibrium Stages and
Column Diameter
DOWNCOMER ASSEMBLY
Weir length, Weir height, Downcomer
Length
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, (psia)
Temperature, (
o
C)

L
(lb/cu. ft)

V
(lb/cu. ft)

Internal reflux
Max vapor, Q
v
(lb/hr)
Max liquid, Q
L
(lb/hr)
Max vapor, Q
v
(cu. ft/hr)
Max liquid, Q
L
(cu. ft/hr)
Max liquid, Q
L
(gpm)
Surface Tension, (dynes/cm)
Tray Spacing, (ft.)
X
D
= 0.8947
|
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.
|

\
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+
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.
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\
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.
|

\
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=
18.016kg
1
4.4kg
46.069kg
1
95.6kg
46.069kg
1
95.6kg
fraction) (mol X
D
mol mol
mol
Convert X
F
= 0.01 by vol. to by percent by mole

From Perrys (Table 2-28)

H2O
@ 25
o
C = 997.045 kg/m
3

From (Table 2-30)
) ) / 1 ( 1 (
2
1
4
3
C
C T
EtOH
C
C
+
=
Convert X
F
= 0.01 by vol. to by percent by mole

From Perrys (Table 2-28)

H2O
@ 25
o
C = 997.045 kg/m
3

From (Table 2-30)
) ) / 1 ( 1 (
2
1
4
3
C
C T
EtOH
C
C
+
=
) ) 92 . 513 / 15 . 298 1 ( 1 (
2331 . 0
27627 . 0
648 . 1
+
=
EtOH

3
05082236 . 17
m
kmol
EtOH
=
|
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.
|

\
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|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
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|
.
|

\
|
=
kg
kmol
m
kg
m
kmol
m
kmol
X
F
016 . 18
1
045 . 997 90 . 0 0508 . 17 10 . 0
0508 . 17 10 . 0
3 3
3
0331 . 0 =
F
X
Convert X
B
into mole fraction:

Since given is X
B
= 0.01% by volume
- the fraction of ethanol in the bottoms
can be assumed to be negligible


Thus, assume the temperature in the
bottom plate can be assumed to be 100
o
C
- the boiling point of water at 1 atm
From Table 2-28 of Perrys (p.2-91)
3
3
3
100
7492 . 59
28 . 3
1
1
2 . 2
365 . 958
0
2
f t
lb
f t
m
kg
lb
m
kg
C at O H
=
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.
|

\
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.
|

\
|
=
3
7492 . 59
f t
lb
LV
=
3
92 . 513
15 . 373
1 1
100
4429 . 15
27627 . 0
648 . 1
2331 . 0
0
m
kmol
C at etOH
= =
|
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.
|

\
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.
|

\
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+

( )
|
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\
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.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
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.
|

\
|
=
kg
kmol
m
kg
m
kmol
m
kmol
X
B
016 . 18
1
365 . 958 0001 . 0 1 4429 . 15 0001 . 0
4429 . 15 0001 . 0
3 3
3
5
10 9035 . 2

= x X
B
Solving for X
B

Determination of Densities

Saturation temperature at azeotropic concentration
T
sat
= 78.10
o
C

Interpolating from Table 2-256 of Perrys

T
sat
= 273.15 + 78.10 = 351.25 K
351.25 0.001 33505

Determination of Densities

Saturation temperature at azeotropic concentration
T
sat
= 78.10
o
C

Interpolating from Table 2-256 of Perrys

T
sat
= 273.15 + 78.10 = 351.25 K
kg
m
x V
f
3
3
10 33505 . 1

=
3
3
3
6985 . 46
2 . 2
28 . 3
1 1
f t
lb
kg
lb
f t
m
kg
m
V
F
LV
=
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\
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=
Assuming that the gas phase behaves ideally,
manipulation of the ideal gas equation:
( )
( )
L
g
K
K mol
atm L
atm
mol
g
RT
MP
V
m
VT
5881 . 0
15 . 373 0821 . 0
1 016 . 18
=

|
.
|

\
|
= = =
3
3
28 . 3
1
1
1000
1000
2 . 2
5881 . 0
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
f t
m
m
L
g
lb
L
g
VT

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
0167 . 0
f t
lb
VT

( )
( )
3
3
28 . 3
1
1
1000
1
2 . 2
1000
1
4951 . 1
15 . 273 1 . 78 0821 . 0
1 1150 . 43
|
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\
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\
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\
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\
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=
+
|
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\
|

|
.
|

\
|
= = =
f t
m
m
L
kg
lb
g
kg
L
g
K
K mol
atm L
atm
mol
g
RT
MP
V
m
VB
VB

3
0932 . 0
f t
lb
VB
=
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia
Temperature,
o
C

L
lb/cu. ft

V
lb/cu. ft

Internal reflux
Max vapor, lb/hr
Max liquid, lb/hr
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, gpm
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C

L
lb/cu. ft

V
lb/cu. ft

Internal reflux
Max vapor, lb/hr
Max liquid, lb/hr
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, gpm
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft

V
lb/cu. ft

Internal reflux
Max vapor, lb/hr
Max liquid, lb/hr
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, gpm
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft 46.6985 59.7491

V
lb/cu. ft

Internal reflux
Max vapor, lb/hr
Max liquid, lb/hr
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, gpm
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft 46.6985 59.7491

V
lb/cu. ft

0.0932 0.0367
Internal reflux
Max vapor, lb/hr
Max liquid, lb/hr
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, gpm
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
M
F
= 0.0331(46.069) + (1 - 0.0381)(18.016)
= 18.9446 g/mol

M
D
= 0.8947(46.069) + (1 - 0.8947)(18.016)
= 43.1150 g/mol

M
B
= 2.9033x10
-5
(46.069) + (1 - 2.9033x10
-5
)
= 18.0168 g/mol
OMB: F = D + B
( )
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\
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+
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\
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=
hr
day
kg
kmol
m
kg
L
m
day
L
hr
day
kg
mol
m
kg
L
m
day
L
D
24
1
016 . 18
1 974 . 972
1000
1
000 , 300 8947 . 0 1
24
1
069 . 46
1 036 . 749
1000
1
000 , 300 8947 . 0
3
3
3
3
Material Balances
hr
lbmol
D 095 . 550 =
CMB: FX
F
= DX
D
+ BX
B
( ) ( )
( )
5
10 9033 . 2 095 . 550
8947 . 0 095 . 550 0331 . 0

|
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\
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+
|
.
|

\
|
=
x
hr
lbmol
F
hr
lbmol
F
hr
lbmol
B
hr
lbmol
F
626 . 332 , 14
721 . 882 , 14
=
=
Determination of L and V (McCabe-Thiele
Graphical Method)
D
Lo
RD =
min ) 50 . 1 05 . 1 ( D Dactual R R =
ESOL Eqn:
N
D
D
n X
R
R
Y
|
.
|

\
|
+
= +
1
1
1 +
+
D
D
R
X
D n X
V
D
X
V
L
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
SSOL Eqn:
1 + n Y
|
.
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\
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|
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|

\
|
=
+
B
B
m
B
B
R
X
X
R
R 1
B m X
V
B
X
V
L
|
.
|

\
|

|
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.
|

\
|
=
X
F
= 0.0331
77
o
F
q = 4
q - line
X
D =
0.8947
F
F vap
H
H H
q
A
A A
=
33 . 1
3
4
1
= =

=
q
q
m
X
F
= 0.0331
X
D =
0.8947
ESOL for R
Dmin
70769 . 0
1
min
min
=
+
=
D
D
R
R
ESOL of slope
R
Dmin
= 2.4211

2666 . 0
1
int
min
=
+
=
D
D
R
X
ESOL of y
R
Dmin
= 2.3551

R
Dmin,ave
= 2.3881

R
Dactual
=
1.50(R
Dmin
)

R
Dactual
= 3.58215

X
F
= 0.0331
X
D =
0.8947
7993 . 0
1
=
+
=
Dactual
Dactual
actual
R
R
ESOL of slope
X
B
N = 20
Feed Stage, N
F
= 17
2706 . 1
1
=
+
=
B
B
R
R
SSOL of slope R
B
=3.6957

58215 . 3 = =
D
Lo
R
D
L = 3.58215D = 3.58215(550.095)

L = 1970.523 lbmol/hr

Balance over Top Plate:

V = L + D

V = 1970.523 + 550.095

V = 2520.618 lbmol/hr
V
L
V
=
+
B
B
R
R 1
mm
mm
25 . 4
4 . 5
Slope of SSOL,
= 1.2706
R
B
= 3.6957 =
B
V
332.626) 3.6957(14, 3.6957B = = V
V
V B L + =
lbmol/hr 67,301.712 = L
= 52,969.086 lbmol/hr



= 14,332.626 + 52,969.086

Balance Over Bottom Plate
V
L
V
N = 20
Feed Stage = 17
FLOW RATES FOR TOP PLATE
lb/hr 84,959.1
1
1150 . 43
1970.523 L =
|
.
|

\
|
=
lbmol
lb
hr
lbmol
/s ft 0.5054
3600
1
6985 . 46
1
84,959.1
3
3
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
hr
lb
ft
hr
lb
gpm 40.67
min 1
60
785412 . 3
1
283 . 3
1000
0.5054
3
3
=
|
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\
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.
|

\
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|
.
|

\
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=
s
L
gal
ft
L
s
ft
lb/hr 5 108,676.44
1150 . 43
2520.618 V =
|
.
|

\
|
=
lbmol
lb
hr
lbmol
/s ft 323.905
3600
1
0932 . 0
1
5 108,676.44
3
3
=
|
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|

\
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|
.
|

\
|
=
s
hr
lb
ft
hr
lb
FLOW RATES FOR BOTTOM PLATE
lb/hr 485 1,212,561.
1
0168 . 18
67,301.712 L =
|
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\
|
=
lbmol
lb
hr
lbmol
/s ft 5.637
3600
1
7492 . 59
1
485 1,212,561.
3
3
=
|
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|

\
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|
.
|

\
|
=
s
hr
lb
ft
hr
lb
gpm 453.591
min 1
60
785412 . 3
1
283 . 3
1000
5.637
3
3
=
|
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|

\
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.
|

\
|
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|
.
|

\
|
=
s
L
gal
ft
L
s
ft
lb/hr 86 954,333.42
0168 . 18
52,969.086 V =
|
.
|

\
|
=
lbmol
lb
hr
lbmol
/s ft 7223.232
3600
1
0167 . 0
1
86 954,333.42
3
3
=
|
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|

\
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.
|

\
|
=
s
hr
lb
ft
hr
lb
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft 46.6985 59.7491

V
lb/cu. ft

0.0932 0.0367
Internal reflux 3.58215 3.6957
Max vapor, lb/hr
Max liquid, lb/hr
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, gpm
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft 46.6985 59.7491

V
lb/cu. ft

0.0932 0.0367
Internal reflux 3.58215 3.6957
Max vapor, lb/hr 108,676.445 954,333.429
Max liquid, lb/hr
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, gpm
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft 46.6985 59.7491

V
lb/cu. ft

0.0932 0.0367
Internal reflux 3.58215 3.6957
Max vapor, lb/hr 108,676.445 954,333.429
Max liquid, lb/hr 84,959.1 1,212,561.5
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, gpm
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft 46.6985 59.7491

V
lb/cu. ft

0.0932 0.0367
Internal reflux 3.58215 3.6957
Max vapor, lb/hr 108,676.445 954,333.429
Max liquid, lb/hr 84,959.1 1,212,561.5
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr 323.905 7,225.232
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr
Max liquid, gpm
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft 46.6985 59.7491

V
lb/cu. ft

0.0932 0.0367
Internal reflux 3.58215 3.6957
Max vapor, lb/hr 108,676.445 954,333.429
Max liquid, lb/hr 84,959.1 1,212,561.5
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr 323.905 7,225.232
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr 0.5054 5.637
Max liquid, gpm
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft 46.6985 59.7491

V
lb/cu. ft

0.0932 0.0367
Internal reflux 3.58215 3.6957
Max vapor, lb/hr 108,676.445 954,333.429
Max liquid, lb/hr 84,959.1 1,212,561.5
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr 323.905 7,225.232
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr 0.5054 5.637
Max liquid, gpm 40.67 453.5941
Surface Tension , dynes/cm
Tray Spacing, ft.
For Surface Tension:
m mN m / 40 . 71 = o
At 100
o
C:
m mN water / 91 . 58 =
o
m mN
m mN
etOH
water
/ 55 . 17
/ 32 . 59
=
=
o
o
894701244 . 0 =
D
X
At 78.1
o
C:

105298756 . 0
2
= O H X

( )( ) { }
( )( )
| |
( )
{ }{ }
6277 . 3
1
log
log
1
log
10
) 0185 . 0 )( 32 . 59 (
2
0627 . 0 55 . 17
25 . 351
2
1 . 44
) 0627 . 0 )( 8947 . 0 ( ) 0185 . 0 )( 1053 . 0 (
0627 . 0 8947 . 0
0185 . 0 1053 . 0
10 10
3
2
3
2
1
2
=
|
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\
|
+
+
+
=
+
+
(
(
(

|
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\
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.
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\
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+
(
(

w
w
x
w
w

cm
dyne
x x
x
water
water
etOH
w
w w
w
w
9313 . 17
) 55 . 17 ( 9848 . 0 ) 32 . 59 ( 0152 . 0
9848 . 0 0152 . 0 1
0152 . 0
10 3567 . 2 10 3567 . 2
10 3567 . 2
1
25 . 0 25 . 0
4 4
4
4
1
2
=
+ =
= = +
= +
+ = +
=
+
+

o
o
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft 46.6985 59.7491

V
lb/cu. ft

0.0932 0.0367
Internal reflux 3.58215 3.6957
Max vapor, lb/hr 10345.44 90840.23
Max liquid, lb/hr 8087.69 115420.53
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr 30.83 687.56
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr 0.0481 0.5366
Max liquid, gpm 21.61 241.03
Surface Tension , dynes/cm 17.93 58.91
Tray Spacing, ft.
Data TOP BOTTOM
Pressure, psia 14.7 14.7
Temperature,
o
C 78.1 100

L
lb/cu. ft 46.6985 59.7491

V
lb/cu. ft

0.0932 0.0367
Internal reflux 3.58215 3.6957
Max vapor, lb/hr 10345.44 90840.23
Max liquid, lb/hr 8087.69 115420.53
Max vapor, cu. ft/hr 30.83 687.56
Max liquid, cu. ft/hr 0.0481 0.5366
Max liquid, gpm 21.61 241.03
Surface Tension , dynes/cm 17.93 58.91
Tray Spacing, ft. 1.5 1.5
TOWER DIAMETER
CALCULATIONS
* Assuming a non-foaming system
* Based on 80% flooding and the use of splash baffle
5 . 0
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\
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=
L
V
F
V
L
P

0349 . 0
6985 . 46
0932 . 0
445 . 108676
91 . 84959
5 . 0
=
|
.
|

\
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|
.
|

\
|
=

0315 .
7492 . 59
0367 . 0
4286 . 954333
485 . 1212561
5 . 0
=
|
.
|

\
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.
|

\
|
=
TOP PLATE BOTTOM PLATE
From Figure 13.21 of Van Winkle,
With a Tray Spacing of 1.5 ft
0.275
0.280
From Figure 13.12 of Van Winkle
With a Tray Spacing of 1.5ft
275 . 0 =
C
P


280 . 0 =
C
P
( )
( ) 269 . 0
20
93 . 17
275 . 0
,
8 . 0
,
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
o
corr
C
corr
C
P
P
( )
( ) 348 . 0
20
91 . 58
280 . 0
,
8 . 0
,
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
o
corr
C
corr
C
P
P
For 100% flood,
f ps U
U
VN
VN
015 . 6
0932 . 0
0932 . 0 6985 . 46
269 . 0
5 . 0
=
|
.
|

\
|

=


f ps U
U
VN
VN
047 . 14
0367 . 0
0367 . 0 7492 . 59
348 . 0
5 . 0
=
|
.
|

\
|

=
5 . 0
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
V
V L
C VN
P U


Computing for vapor flow net area A
N
for 80 %
of flood,
( ) 8 . 0
VN
V
N
U
Q
A =
( )( )
ft sq A
N
312 . 67
8 . 0 015 . 6
905 . 323
= =


( )( )
ft sq A
N
231 . 643
8 . 0 037 . 14
232 . 7223
= =

Assume A
d
= 0.1A,
Thus A = A
N
+ 2A
d
= A
N
+ 0.2A

A = 67.312 + 0.2A
A = 84.14 sq. ft.
A = 643.231 + 0.2A
A = 804.039 sq. ft.
From
5 . 0
2
4
4
|
.
|

\
|
= = A D D A
t
t
D = 10.35 ft D = 31 ft
Check the validity of the assumption from Table 14.2
Table 14.2 Recommended Limits: Tray and Column design
Perforated Trays
Column diameter
basis: % flood


Tray Spacing





Tray
Flow arrangement
General
med. diam. 6-12 ft
large diam. 12-24 ft
Tray layout
1-24ft
80-85% NF
70-75%

Fig. 13.21
12-36 in.
Col. diam. 2.0-4.0ft; 12-18 in
Col. diam. 5.0-24 ft; 24-36 in
check: liquid backup, entrainment

(table 14.3)
Cross flow
DP
Multiple pass
Hole diam.: 1/8 1/2 in.
Hole area: 6-15% col. Area

Spacing: pitch/hole diam., 2-4

tray thickness: 16 gage to in.

Assumed
Tray Spacing
less than
minimum for
a 10ft
column
Assumed
was 18in
Check the validity of the assumption from Table 14.2
Change tray spacing to 36 inches (3ft)
Read Pc from Table 13.2
0.48
0.49
Check the validity of the assumption from Table 14.2
Change tray spacing to 36 inches (3 ft)
Read Pc from Table 13.2
P
c
= 0.48

Following previously done calculations
D = 23.5 ft

P
c
= 0.49

D = 7.5 ft

Check for Percent Flood
A VN
V
A U
Q
flood = %
) 51 . 10 )( 321 . 45 ) 1 . 0 ( 2 321 . 45 (
905 . 323
%

= flood
) 525 . 24 )( 125 . 433 )( 1 . 0 ( 2 125 . 433 (
232 . 7223
%

= flood
% 85 % = flood % 85 % = flood
A = 45.321 ft
2

A = 433.125 ft
2

A = 0.1(A)
= 4.5321 ft
2

A
A
= A 2(0.1)A
= 2 36.257 ft
2

A = 0.1(A)
= 4.5321 ft
2

A
A
= A 2(0.1)A
= 346.5 ft
2

D = 23.5 ft
D = 7.5 ft
SEIVE TRAY
DESIGN
CALCULATIONS
d
h
t
p
P
Tray Spacing, S
tray
From Table 14.2, create a pre-assumed
Tray Layout
Table 14.2 Recommended Limits: Tray and Column design
Perforated Trays
Column diameter
basis: % flood


Tray Spacing





Tray
Flow arrangement
General
med. diam. 6-12 ft
large diam. 12-24 ft
Tray layout
1-24ft
80-85% NF
70-75%

Fig. 13.21
12-36 in.
Col. diam. 2.0-4.0ft; 12-18 in
Col. diam. 5.0-24 ft; 24-36 in
check: liquid backup, entrainment


(table 14.3)
Cross flow
DP
Multiple pass
Hole diam.: 1/8 1/2 in.
Hole area: 6-15% col. Area

Spacing: pitch/hole diam., 2-4

tray thickness: 16 gage to in.

Hole clearance:
hole-tower wall, 1.5 in.
hole-weir, 2.0in., min
hole-apron, 2.0 in., min
Ave. dyanamic seal h
ds
:
vacuum, 0.5 0.6 in.
atmospheric, 0.5 1.5 in.
pressure, 1.5-3.0 in.
From Table 14.2, create a pre-assumed
Tray Layout
Top Plate Bottom Plate
Tray Spacing
3.0 ft 3.0 ft
Plate
Thickness, t
p
0.25 in 0.25 in
Hole
Diameter, d
h
0.50 in 0.50 in
P/d
h
Pitch, P
4
2 in
4
2 in
WEIR AND
DOWNCOMER
ASSEMBLY
Weir (Outlet Weir)
Downcomer
Weir Height, h
w
Weir length, l
w
Weir Length, l
w
From Table 14.8, select h
w
= 3.0 in
A
d
= 0.1A,

1 . 0 =
A
A
d
From Table 14.10
Weir Length, l
w
From Table 14.8, select h
w
= 1.5 in
A
d
= 0.1A,

1 . 0 =
A
A
d
From Table 14.10
7267 . 0 =
D
L
L = l
w
= 0.7267(7.5ft)
l
w
= 5.525 ft
L = l
w
= 0.7267(23.5ft)
l
w
= 17.085 ft
Check for ENTRAINMENT

From Tower Diameter calculations

P
F
= 0.0349 P
F
= 0.0315

From Figure 13-26 (Entrainment Correlation)


0.165
0.160
Check for ENTRAINMENT

From Tower Diameter calculations

P
F
= 0.0349 P
F
= 0.0315

From Figure 13-26 (Entrainment Correlation)

Entrainment , moles/moles of downflow

= 0.160 = 0.0165

PRESSURE DROP
o | h h h h H o ow w T + + + = A ) (
Total Pressure Drop,
h
w
(weir height)

h
w
= 1.5 in h
w
= 1.5 in


h
ow
(liquid crest over weir, in.)

67 . 0
48 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
L
w
ow
l
Q
F h
h
ow
= in
Q
L
= gpm
l
w
= ft
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
5 . 2
w
L
w
l
Q
f F
|
|
.
|

\
|
5 . 2
w
L
l
Q

0946 . 2
5435 . 2
61 . 21
5 . 2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

6931 . 1
267 . 7
03 . 241
5 . 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
From Figure 13.7
With L/D = 0.7267
L/D = 0.7267
1.020
1.022
From Figure 13.7

F
w
= 1.022 F
w
= 1.020

67 . 0
48 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
L
w
ow
l
Q
F h

( )
in h
h
ow
ow
35 . 0
12 525 . 5
67 . 40
) 022 . 1 ( 48 . 0
67 . 0
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

( )
in h
h
ow
ow
82 . 0
12 085 . 17
591 . 453
) 020 . 1 ( 48 . 0
67 . 0
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
h

(equivalent surface tension head loss, in.)



h L
d
h

o
o
04 . 0
=


in h
h
0307 . 0
) 50 . 0 )( 6985 . 46 (
) 93 . 17 ( 04 . 0
=
=
o
o

in h
h
0789 . 0
) 55 . 0 )( 7492 . 59 (
) 91 . 58 ( 04 . 0
=
=
o
o
h
o
(equivalent head loss through holes, in.)

2
186 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
h
L
v
o
C
U
h


U
h
= velocity of vapor through holes

h
v
h
A
Q
U =


A
h
= total hole area
From Table 14.8, with
1 . 0 =
A
A
h


( )( )
2
2
6257 . 3
257 . 36 1 . 0
ft A
ft A
h
h
=
=

( )( )
2
2
65 . 34
5 . 346 1 . 0
ft A
ft A
h
h
=
=


fps U
h
46 . 208
65 . 34
232 . 7223
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
h
p
d
t

50 . 0
50 . 0
25 . 0
=
|
.
|

\
|

50 . 0
50 . 0
25 . 0
=
|
.
|

\
|
89.34fps
3.6257
323.905
= =
h
U
From Figure 13.18,

725 . 0 =
o
C

725 . 0 =
o
C
Solving for h
o


2
186 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
h
L
v
o
C
U
h


in h
h
o
o
64 . 5
725 . 0
34 . 89
6985 . 46
0932 . 0
186 . 0
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
in h
h
o
o
45 . 9
725 . 0
46 . 208
7492 . 59
0367 . 0
186 . 0
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1 . 0 =
A
A
h
50 . 0
50 . 0
25 . 0
= =
in
in
d
t
h
p
0.50
0.725
From Figure 13.18,

725 . 0 =
o
C

725 . 0 =
o
C
Solving for h
o


2
186 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
h
L
v
o
C
U
h


in h
h
o
o
64 . 5
725 . 0
34 . 89
6985 . 46
0932 . 0
186 . 0
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
in h
h
o
o
45 . 9
725 . 0
46 . 208
7492 . 59
0367 . 0
186 . 0
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(relative foam density)

) (
va
F f = |
5 . 0
) (
v VA VA
U F =
U
VA
=vapor velocity based on active area, fps

A
Q
A
Q
U
v
A
v
VA
8 . 0
= =
93 . 8
257 . 36
905 . 323
= =
VA
U

87 . 20
5 . 346
232 . 7223
= =
VA
U


5 . 0
) (
v VA VA
U F =

727 . 2
) 0932 . 0 )( 93 . 8 (
5 . 0
=
=
VA
VA
F
F

0 . 4
) 0367 . 0 )( 87 . 20 (
5 . 0
=
=
VA
VA
F
F
From Figure 13.16





0.56
0.55
From Figure 13.16

56 . 0 = |

55 . 0 ~ |
Solving for total pressure drop

o | h h h h H o w w T + + + = A ) ( 0

in H
H
T
T
5802 . 7
0307 . 0 64 . 5 ) 35 . 0 0 . 3 ( 56 . 0
= A
+ + + = A


in H
H
T
T
5917 . 11
789 . 0 45 . 9 ) 82 . 0 0 . 3 ( 55 . 0
= A
+ + + = A
WEEP POINT
Calculated (h
o
+h

) > Theoretical (h
o
+h

)

(h
o
+ h

)
calc


6707 . 5 ) 0307 . 0 64 . 5 ( = +

5289 . 9 ) 0789 . 0 45 . 9 ( = +

(h
w
+h
ow
)

35 . 3 ) 35 . 0 0 . 3 ( = +

82 . 3 ) 82 . 0 0 . 3 ( = +
From Figure 13.22,



0.53
0.55
WEEP POINT
Calculated (h
o
+h

) > Theoretical (h
o
+h

)

(h
o
+ h

)
calc


6707 . 5 ) 0307 . 0 64 . 5 ( = +

5289 . 9 ) 0789 . 0 45 . 9 ( = +

(h
w
+h
ow
)

35 . 3 ) 35 . 0 0 . 3 ( = +

82 . 3 ) 82 . 0 0 . 3 ( = +
From Figure 13.22

53 . 0 h (h
o
= ) +
theo o

55 . 0 h (h
o
= ) +
theo o

LIQUID BACKUP IN DOWNCOMER

d
d ow w T D h h h H H
|
1
2
(

+
A
+ + + A =
= liquid gradient, in.
h
d
= equivalent head loss in downcomer, in.

d
= froth density in downcomer



2
100
03 . 0
(

=
dm
L
d
A
Q
h
A
dm
= minimum area of liquid flow in downcomer assembly
A
AP
= (apron clearance)(l
w
)
Assume Apron clearance of 1.5 in

2
691 . 0
) 525 . 5 (
12
1
) 5 . 1 (
ft A
ft
in
ft
in A
AP
AP
=
=

2
136 . 2
) 085 . 17 (
12
1
) 5 . 1 (
ft A
ft
in
ft
in A
AP
AP
=
=
2
100
03 . 0
(

=
dm
L
d
A
Q
h

in h
h
d
d
4 . 01 . 0
) 691 . 0 ( 100
67 . 40
03 . 0
2
=
(

=

in h
h
d
d
135 . 0
) 136 . 2 ( 100
591 . 453
03 . 0
2
=
(

=



Assume: = 0.10
d
= 0.5
Solving for H
D


in H
H
D
D
99 . 10
5 . 0
1
0104 . 0
2
10 . 0
35 . 0 0 . 3 5802 . 7
=
(

+ + + + =
in H
H
D
D
5967 . 15
5 . 0
1
135 . 0
2
10 . 0
82 . 0 0 . 3 5917 . 11
=
(

+ + + + =
LIQUID RESIDENCE TIME IN DOWNCOMER,

rate flow
downcomer of volume
= u

( )
s
s ft
in
ft
in ft
2126 . 8
/ 5054 . 0
12
1
) 99 . 10 ( 5321 . 4
3
2
= = u

( )
s
s ft
in
ft
in ft
987 . 9
/ 637 . 5
12
1
) 5967 . 15 ( 3125 . 43
3
2
= = u
L
D d
Q
H A
=
TOP BOTTOM
Tower diameter 7.5 ft 23.5 ft
Tray spacing 3 ft 3 ft
Active area 36.257 ft
2
346.5 ft
2

Area of holes 3.6257 ft
2
34.65 ft
2

Area downcomer 4.5321 ft
2
43.3125 ft
2

A
h
/A 0.08 0.08
A
d
/A 0.1 0.1
A
h
/A
A
0.1 0.1
d
h
0.5 in 0.5 in
l
w
5.525 ft 17.085 ft
h
w
3.0 in 3.0 in
Tray thickness 0.25 in 0.25 in
Downcomer clearance
SUMMARY
SUMMARY
N = 20
DISTILLATION COLUMN
N
F
= 17

D
T
= 7.5 ft

D
B
= 23.5 ft

TOTAL CONDENSER AND
PARTIAL REBOILER
Z = 60 ft

SUMMARY
TRAY LAYOUT
S
tray
= 3 ft

Top and Bottom Plates
d
h
= 0.50 in

t
p
= 0.25 in

P = 2 in

Number of
holes

=

SUMMARY
DOWNCOMER ASSEMBLY
Top Plate

h
w
= 3 in

l
w
= 5.525 ft

References:
Barrientos, Melvin Buensalido.

Foust, Alan S., et al. Principles of Unit Operations. 2
nd
ed. Singapore:
John wiley & Sons. 1980

McCabe, Warren L., et al. Unit Operations for Chemical Engineers. 7
th

ed. USA: McGraw-Hill Inc. 2006.

Molina, Claudia Arabelle.

Perry, Robert H., and Don W. Green. Perrys Chemical Engineering
Handbook, 7
th
ed. USA: McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1997.

Van Winkle, Matthew. Distillation.