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PACKAGING

Archna.R
Gokulnath.P
Monikumar.S
Subha.S
Introduction
• Enclosing of physical object – protection from
tampering.
• provides barrier between enclosed product and its
environment.
Purpose
• protection against physical impact on object, dust
and dirt.
• agglomeration
• Information transmission
• Marketing
• Prevention of pilferage & tampering
MATERIALS USED IN
PACKAGING
NAME PROPER- APPLICAT- ADVAN- DISADV-
TIES IONS TAGE ANTAGE
HDPE Milky,tran Milk-bottle, Readily Environmen-
-slucent detergent pigmented- tal stress cra-
bottle,house- attractive cking (redu-
hold colours.
ces with co-
chemical
bottles,pallet monomer)
s,bags,sacks.
MATERIALS USED
LDPE Soft, Films, Better Too soft
flexible Bags clarity
than
HDPE
HP-LDPE Good Films Higher Not
heat seal and bags heat seal much
material tempera- toughnes
ture & s,
narrow stiffness.
range
MATERIALS USED
LDPE Toughn- Bags & Yield Cost is
ess, films stray more
Stiffness films at
& high thinner
barrier gauge.
property.

Poly- Highly Foam Easy to Brittlen-
styrene transpar- packagi- extrude ess(reduc
ent ng and -ed with
thermof- rubber)
orm
MATERIALS USED
PET Small Soft Better Low melt
crystalli- drink O2 & strength
tes, bottles, CO2
transpar- ovenable resistan-
ency tray. ce.
Nylons Semi Bags Low
(polyami crystalli- vacuum Yield -
des) ne with & strength
thermal medical & flex
stability packages strength
MATERIALS USED
PVC Good Water Good Level of
transpar- bottles, barrier residual
ency, Thermof- property, vinyl
slight ormed soft & monomer
bluish blisters, flexible
tint stretch
wrap
Polycar- Slight Medical, Tough, Poor
bonate yellowi- water rigid & chemical
sh tinge bottles impact resistan-
strength ce
TYPES OF PACKAGING
• Child-Resistant Packaging
• Tamper-Evident Packaging
• Flexible Packaging
• Foam Packaging
• Aseptic Packaging
Child-Resistant Packaging
• To prevent children from toxicity in product
• Two designs of packaging
• Cap must be pressed down and turn
• Pull-up and turn
• In form of blisters and pouches
• Paper and aluminium foil with plastic
Tamper-Evident Packaging
• To provide consumer with evidence
• Involves plastic packaging
• plastic over wraps around containers,plastic
neckbands,and inner seals
• Grown particularly in food areas
• Also termed as freshness seal
Flexible-Packaging
• polarized light used to examine heat seals
• Bi-refringence patterns guides seal interface
• Hermatic seals to avoid wrinkles
• Contamination in seal area to be removed
Foam Packaging
• Plastic foam,packaging as cushioning
material also used as containers
• Polystyrene,urethanes,polyethylene,and
polypropylene are used as materials
• Classified in to open cell and closed cell
• Closed cell are less absorbent than open cell
Aseptic Packaging
• Sterilizing the product with heat
• Package with hydrogen peroxide
• Milk,egg mix,soups,juices and liquid foods
• By canning process
Aseptic Packaging
• Convenience-portable,high weight,shatter
proof and easy transporting
• Food safety-prevent food from harmful
bacteria and contaminants
• No refrigeration-can be placed in cabinets
• More nutrition-less heat than canning so
product retain natural taste,color,and texture
Applications Of Packaging
• Milk and dairy foods are packaged
• To maintain product hygiene
• Protects nutrition and flavour
• Reduce food spoilage and waste
• Increase food availability
• Enable efficient food distribution and to
communicate storage instructions
Types Of Packaging In Milk
Products
• Cartons-covered by polyethylene plastic
• Plastic bottles-made of HDPE ,PE ,PET
• HDPE and PET does not spoil the milk
• Containers-polystyrene plastics are used to
produce tubs and pots for milk packaging
MEDICAL PACKAGING
• Polymer films protect the enclosed packaging.
• The films are single or laminated structure of
polymer films.
• Prevents moisture, O2, light, other gases –
permeating package structure.
• Films can be folded or creased without – structural
weakness.
• Common types of sterilization – ethylene oxide
and gamma radiation.
• Gas is introduced – evacuated after destroying
micro organisms.
FILM STRUCTURES
Coextrusion
• Two or more polymers coextruded
through single die.
• Materials – LDPE, Polypropylene, PVC,
Polyamides, Polystyrene.
• Features – low gas permeation rate.

Lamination
• Created when two or more films bonded
with special adhesives – through rolling,
heated cylinders.
FILM STRUCTURES
Lamination
• Materials - polyethylene - cellophane,
polypropylene – cellophane.
• Materials are tested and suitable adhesives
are used.

Metallization
• Developed by vaporizing metal, depositing
to polymer web and applying to film.
• Aluminum – most commonly used.
FILM STRUCTURES
Coating
• Application of various materials to film web
substrate to impart special features and
properties.
• Materials – Teflon, polyvinylidene chloride,
polyvinylidene fluoride.
BLISTER PACKAGING
• Used to make child resistant packaging
• Medical application – pouches, diagnostic test kits
& disposables.
• Two types – 1. push through lidding – tablet or
capsule- PVC, PET, polyvinylidene chloride.
2. peelable lidding – sealed packet with or without
special adhesives – tyvek coating, polyester
coating, polyvinyl acetate.
Different Technique Followed
in Packaging

• Injection Moulding
• Injection Blow Moulding
• Extrusion Blow Moulding
• Positive Thermoforming
• Negative Thermoforming
Injection Moulding
• For Producing Caps and Lids
• Uses two stage Extruders,for plasticizing
and injection functions
• Made of high quality tool grade steel and so
expensive
• Polymers used have relatively low
viscosities
• Temperature plays main role
Injection Moulding
Closures
• Critical parts of packing System
• Has to rectify the errors occurred during the
manufacture of Containers
• Polypropylene- the most widely used
• Polystyrene, HDPE, LDPE and PVC are
also used
Closures- Categories

• Friction Closures- for Cork typed

• Snap on Closures- for Child resistant

• Threaded Closures- for those at
pressure(Example- Carbonated Beverages)
Blow Moulding

• Extrusion Blow Moulding

• Injection Blow Moulding
Extrusion Blow Moulding
• Used for Producing Plastic Bottles
• Extrusion is in Downward Direction
Injection Blow Moulding
• Used for producing Bottles
• Two moulds are used
• Mold has two halves of cavities and a core
rod
• Preferred for small bottles
• Polystyrene and PET are most commonly
used
Injection Blow Moulding
Thermoforming
• Used for making Cups, Egg Cartons, Trays
etc..
• More than 75% of thermoforming
applications are in packaging
• HIPS is used
• Maintaining temperature is important in
Thermoforming
Types of Thermoforming
Positive Thermoforming
* Convex mould is used
* Preferred when tolerances on inside
of package are critical
Negative Thermoforming
* Concave mould is used
* Better material distribution, faster
cooling than positive thermoforming