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Fredy Saravia Poicón
Ing. Electricista, MSc
fsaravia@kievasociados.com


Lima, Setiembre del 2009

Efecto Corona en Líneas de
Transmisión

Líneas de Transmisión
Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería
Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica
Departamento de Electricidad



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Efecto Corona
 Descarga Eléctrica autosostenida en la
cual la intensidad de campo de ionización
es localizada sobre una parte en el
espaciamiento entre conductores.
 La descarga puede ser unipolar o bipolar.
 La corriente de descarga corona se
compone de impulsos de frente de onda
muy cortos (decenas de nanosegundos)
con altas frecuencias creando una
radiación electromgnática intensa.
-
N
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
+ --
+ --
+ --
--
--
--
-- --
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
+
+
+
+
+
+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

+
+

+

+

+




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Fenómeno Corona
 Tensión Crítica Disruptiva
Tensión a la cual se produce la perforación del dieléctrico. Corresponde a un
gradiente en la superficie igual a la resistencia dieléctrica del aire: g
o
= 30 kV/cm bajo
25°C y 76 mm HG




 Tensión Visual Disruptiva
Tensión a la cual el fenómeno
corona es observado
x
d
+
q
-
q
N
P
c
c d
r
d
ln r m V o 1 . 21 =
o
t
b
+
=
273
92 . 3
o
o - Factor densidad aire
b - mm Hg
m - rugosidad (0.87-1)
r
C
- radio conductor, cm
d - entre fases, cm.
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
o
o
C
c
c V V
r
r
d
ln r m V
3 . 0
1 1 . 21



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Pérdidas por Efecto

Corona

 Para condiciones de mal tiempo la V
d
se afecta por 0.8
 Pérdidas Corona: Es la potencia que requieren tomar del sistema para que los
iones producidos por el campo eléctrico (cargas) se muevan alrededor del
conductor. Es un fenómeno resistivo.
 Las pérdidas corona se determinan experimentalemnte mediante balances de
potencia y energía. En algunos casos se realizan mediciones especiales.
( )
( ) kV/km/fase V V
d
r f
P
d OpF
C
C
5
2
10
25
241
÷
÷
+
=
o
Fórmula de Peek



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Factores en Pérdidas Corona
 Eléctricos
Dependen de la frecuencia (CC<CA)
Forma de onda. Tercer armónico
Disposición de los conductores
Distancia de conductor al suelo
 Atmosféricos
Densidad del aire: polución, lluvia, etc.
 Relacionados con el Conductor
Radio del conductor >r => >Pc
Número de conductores por fase
Estado de la superficie del conductor
Calor del conductor por la I
carga



Mayor E
Menor U
d




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Formas de reducir Corona
 Aumentar el diámetro del conductor.
 Uso de conductores huecos
Mayor costo
Mayor sección
Otra tecnología
 Líneas de fases múltiples
Unom
kV
Conductor
por fase
Diámetro
del
Conductor
Mm
Sección
mm
2
110 1 11.3 70
220 1 21.6 240
330 2 (*) 23.5 300
500 3 25.2 330
750 4 29.0 400



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Diseños Considerando Corona
 Es deseable evitar el efecto corona
en condiciones de tiempo normal y
reducirla en condiciones de mal
tiempo.
 Se requiere evaluar los costos para
adoptar otros diseño (mayores
distancias al suelo, mayor sección,
disposición, etc.).
 Se consideran valores aceptables de
1 kW/milla en buen tiempo y 3
kW/milla en mal tiempo.



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Ventajas y Desventajas
 Ventajas
Reduce la alta tensión de la onda de frente inclinada cuando hay descargas
atmósféricas sobre las líneas, disipando la energía como pérdida corona.
 Desventajas.
Radio interferencias : La descarga corona emite radiaciones que se introducen
como ruidos en líneas de comunicaciones, radio, TV; siendo importante
evaluarlas en V>200 kV
Interferencia inductiva entre las líneas de potencia y de comunicaciones.
Las líneas de transmisión aumentan los campos electromagnéticos y
electrostáticos en magnitud sufoiciente para inducir corrientes y tensiones en
líneas vecinas.



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 Líneas de
Transmisión UNI - FASP
El efecto corona se presenta cuando el
potencial de un conductor en el aire se
eleva hasta valores tales que sobrepasan
la rigidez dieléctrica del aire que rodea al
conductor. El efecto corona se manifiesta
por luminiscencias o penachos azulados
que aparecen alrededor del conductor,
mas o menos concentrados en las
irregularidades de su superficie.
SISTEMAS DE TRANSMISIÓN
DE ALTO VOLTAJE EN CORRIENTE CONTINUA (HVDC)
EL EFECTO CORONA



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 Líneas de
Transmisión UNI - FASP
La descarga va acompañada de un
sonido silbante y de olor de ozono. Si hay
humedad apreciable, se produce ácido
nitroso. La corona se debe a la ionización
del aire. Los iones son repelidos y
atraídos por el conductor a grandes
velocidades, produciéndose nuevos iones
por colisión. El aire ionizado resulta
conductor (si bien de alta resistencia) y
aumenta el diámetro eficaz del conductor
metálico.
SISTEMAS DE TRANSMISIÓN
DE ALTO VOLTAJE EN CORRIENTE CONTINUA (HVDC)
EL EFECTO CORONA



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 Líneas de
Transmisión UNI - FASP
En las líneas de transmisión, el efecto
corona origina pérdidas de energía y, si
alcanza cierta importancia, produce
corrosiones en los conductores a causa
del ácido formado.
El efecto corona es función de dos
elementos: el gradiente potencial en la
superficie del conductor y la rigidez
dieléctrica del aire en la superficie, valor
que a su vez depende de la presión
atmosférica y la temperatura.
SISTEMAS DE TRANSMISIÓN
DE ALTO VOLTAJE EN CORRIENTE CONTINUA (HVDC)
EL EFECTO CORONA



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SISTEMAS DE TRANSMISIÓN
DE ALTO VOLTAJE EN CORRIENTE CONTINUA (HVDC)
Donde:
 Vc es el valor de tensión crítica disruptiva en kV.
 δ es el factor de densidad del aire.
 r es el radio del conductor en centímetros.
 DMG es la distancia media geométrica entre fases.
 RMG es el radio medio geométrico.
 n es el número de conductores por fase.
 kr es el coeficiente de rugosidad del conductor empleado, cuyo
valor suele ser:
 1 para conductores nuevos.
 0,98 - 0,93 para conductores viejos (con
protuberancias).
 0,87 - 0,83 para cables formados por hilos.
 km es el coeficiente medioambiental, cuyo valor suele ser:
 1 cuando el aire es seco.
 0,8 para aire húmedo o contaminado.
 kg es el factor de cableado.

El efecto corona se producirá cuando
la tensión de la línea supere la tensión
crítica disruptiva del aire, es decir,
aquel nivel de tensión por encima del
cual el aire se ioniza. La fórmula más
utilizada para la determinación de la
tensión crítica disruptiva es la
propuesta por el ingeniero americano
F.W. Peek:

CÁLCULO DE LA TENSIÓN CRÍTICA DISRUPTIVA



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 Líneas de
Transmisión UNI - FASP
El cálculo de RMG y DMG dependerá en
cada caso de la geometría de la línea
eléctrica.
El factor de densidad del aire se calcula
como:


Donde:
T es la temperatura del aire en grados
celsius
P es la presión del aire en milímetros de
mercurio.

SISTEMAS DE TRANSMISIÓN
DE ALTO VOLTAJE EN CORRIENTE CONTINUA (HVDC)
CÁLCULO DE LA TENSIÓN CRÍTICA DISRUPTIVA



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 Líneas de
Transmisión UNI - FASP
Para aquellos casos en los que se produce el efecto corona, la
pérdida de potencia se calcula según la fórmula:



Donde:
Pc es la pérdida de potencia en kW/km.
δ es el factor de densidad del aire.
f es la frecuencia de la línea en Hz
DMG es la distancia media geométrica entre fases.
RMG es el radio medio geométrico.
Vs es el valor de la tensión fase-neutro (o tensión simple) en kV.
Vc es el valor de tensión crítica disruptiva en kV.


SISTEMAS DE TRANSMISIÓN
DE ALTO VOLTAJE EN CORRIENTE CONTINUA (HVDC)
CÁLCULO DE LAS PÉRDIDAS DE POTENCIA
Physics of Corona and Gap
Discharges
AC and DC Transmission Line
Corona Effects UV Inspection User’s Group Meeting
February 11-13, 2004
ORLANDO, Florida, USA
By
Dr. P. Sarma Maruvada
Notas en español agregadas por Ing. Ariel Lichtig
exclusivamente para curso teoría de Campos-FIUBA
Introduction
Electrical Design, Operation & Maintenance of HV
Transmission Lines Requires Consideration of:
- Air Insulation
- Corona
- Insulators

All Three Aspects Require Knowledge of Electrical
Discharges in Air, Which May Comprise:
- Partial Breakdown (Corona)
- Complete Breakdown (Gap Discharges)
Corona & Gap Discharges
Corona is an electrical discharge (i.e. partial
breakdown of air insulation) occurring in the high
electric field region, generally in the vicinity of
conducting surfaces, but sometimes also near
insulating surfaces, due to ionization processes in air.
Resulta de procesos de avalanchas de electrones bajo
condiciones de campo no uniforme que produce que
la avalancha cese antes de llegar a tierra.

Complete electrical breakdown of air insulation
between two electrodes separated by a very small gap
is known as a micro-gap discharge or simply as Gap
Discharge.
Basic Ionization Processes
 Ionization and excitation by electron impact
A: molécula neutra A
*
: excitada e inestable
A + e ÷ A
*
+ e (excitation)
A
*
÷ A + hf
p
(photo-emission)
A + e ÷ A
+
+ e + e (ionization, si E es >, e no sólo
sube de órbita sino que se separa)
 Photo excitation & ionization
A + hf
p
÷ A
*
(photo-excitation)
A + hf
p
÷ A
+
+ e (photo-ionization,
con más energía)
Basic Ionization Processes
 Electron attachment
A + e ÷ A
-


 Recombination
A
+
+ B
-
÷ A + B + hf
p
(radiative recombination, only with electrons)

The energy of photons, or the frequency of light, depends on the
difference in the orbital energies of the electron

El nitrógeno no tiene afinidad con electrones



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Discharge in Uniform Fields
Field intensified ionization & electron avalanche
+ Ө: iones, más lentos - : electrones libres
electric field



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Discharge in Uniform Fields
 Discharge development & breakdown
Los iones positivos golpean el cátodo y liberan más electrones. Si hay suficiente
campo, el proceso se autosostiene
H V
i
A
Cathode
Anode
Breakdown and Corona
 Excitation of molecules and photon emission occur
simultaneously with ionization.
 Secondary ionization processes, due to impact of ions or
photons, play a crucial role in breakdown.
 In non-uniform fields, such as in a conductor-plane gap, only
partial breakdown or corona occurs (al disminuir el campo).
Modes of Corona in Air
Negative DC Corona
Modes:
Se crea una carga espacial
que cambia la distribución
de campo.
- Trichel Pulse
- Negative Glow
- Negative streamer
Depende se los
constituyentes (N
2
, O
2
),
generación de fotones,
carga espacial.



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Modes of Corona in Air: Visual
Appearance of Negative DC Modes
Para punta de d=0,8 cm sobre esfera de
D=7cm, gap=19 cm, exposición ¼
segundo
Trichel
pulse
Glow
Streamer
Modes of Corona in Air
 Positive DC Corona Modes:

- Onset Streamer (el más
importante)
- Positive Glow
- Breakdown Streamer
Modes of Corona in Air: Visual
Appearance of Positive DC Modes
Para punta de d=0,8 cm sobre
esfera de D=7cm, gap=19 cm,
exposición ¼ segundo
Onset streamer
Glow
Modes of Corona in Air: AC Modes
Escalas: 50 microA/div - 1 ms/div
Se observan varios modos de corona durante cada ciclo al
cambiar el campo continuamente en amplitud y polaridad
Breakdown
Glow
Glow
Gap Discharges in Air
Gap Discharges may Occur:
 Between metallic hardware parts of transmission and distribution
lines;
 Between metallic and insulating surfaces;
 On the surface of polluted insulators



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Gap Discharges in Air
General Mechanism
g
1
U
Gap
Z
Z
U
2
Divisor
capacitivo



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Gap Discharges in Air
Typical Current Pulse Produced
r
T
T
d
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
I
cr
Time
ns ó μs
Light Emission from Discharges
Excitation: A + e ÷ A
*
+ e
Photo-emission: A
*
÷ A + hf
p

with hf
p
= (E
2
– E
1
)
where E
2
is the energy of the excited state and E
1
is the
energy of the ground state to which the molecule
returns.
Light spectrum emitted in air is mainly that of
molecular nitrogen.
Excitation potentials of N
2
= 6.3 eV and of
O
2
= 7.9 eV
La mayoría de los fotones está producida por N
2

Diagram of the Electronic and Vibrational
Energy Levels of the Nitrogen Molecule

Distintos tipos de fotón
según el salto de energía
Light Emission from Discharges
 The frequency band of light emitted is in the UV range, with the
stronger emissions having wavelengths in the range of 300 nm to
500 nm and the weaker emissions in the range of 80 nm to 200 nm.

 The excitation coefficient (i.e. number of molecules excited by an
electron drifting 1 cm in the field direction) depends on the
composition of air and is a function of E/p (cociente campo
eléctrico/presión)
Light Emission from Discharges
 Presence of any trace gases such as argon, carbon dioxide etc.,
can change the light spectrum emitted by discharges in air.

 Spectroscopic data in air suggest that sparks (breakdown)
produce more intense light than streamers (corona).
Photoabsorption
 Photons emitted during the avalanche development in air are
absorbed:
a) partly by other gas molecules;
b) partly by the negative oxygen molecules in the gas,
leading to photo-detachment;
O
2
-
+ hf
p
÷ O
2
+ e
 Other mechanisms leading to the loss of photons are:
photoionization, step ionization, dissociation and dissociative
ionization




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Photoabsorption
 Overall photoabsorption may be characterized by I (intensidad de
fotones):
where μ is the absorption coefficient.
Typical values of μ at atmospheric pressure are:
For N
2
, μ = 0.3 cm
-1
,
O
2
, μ = 30 cm
-1
,
Air, μ = 5 cm
-1

A menor μ, se propaga mayor distancia
The presence of moisture in air reduces μ by about 25%.

x
e
0
I I
µ ÷
=
Radiation from a Corona Discharge
Radiation from Sun



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Corona Onset Gradient (en kV pico/cm)
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
+ o =
c
0 c
r
K
1 E m E
E
0
and K are empirical constants (for positive dc,
E
0
=33.7 & K=0.24, for negative dc & ac, E
0
=30.0
kV/cm & K = 0.30)
o = (273+t
0
).p/(273+t)p
0
is the relative air density; t is
the temperature and p the pressure of ambient air and
t
0
and p
0
are reference values; (t
0
= 25° C and p
0
= 760
mm)
r
c
is the conductor radius in cm
m conductor surface irregularity factor, depende de la
rugosidad superficial del conductor


Corona Effects on AC and DC
Transmission Lines
For both ac and dc lines:
 Corona (power) Loss (CL)
 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (Includes RI, TVI, etc.,)
 Audible Noise (AN)
 Ozone, NO
x
etc.
For dc lines:
 Space Charge Effects
AC Space Charges and Corona Loss
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
- -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- -
-
-
-
-
-
- -
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- -
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
( a )
( b )
( c )
( d )
( e )
( f )

I
e
d b a
c
t
c
e g f
U
I
cor

Icorona es capacitiva, por
desplazamiento de la carga espacial.



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A
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Main Types of DC Transmission Lines
 Unipolar Lines




 Bipolar Lines
Metallic return
( Optional)
AC System AC System

AC System AC System




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Physical Description of Unipolar Corona
 Unipolar ions created near the conductor drift towards the ground, filling
the entire space




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Physical Description of Bipolar Corona
 Ions of both polarities fill the space, creating two unipolar regions
and a bipolar region
Positive
Negative
Region
Region
Bipolar
Region




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Generation of RI
- Corona current pulse
trains are injected into
conductors

- The high-frequency
current components
propagate along the
conductors and
produce RI near the
transmission line.


time
T
T
c+
DC Positive
DC Negative
AC
time
time
c-
c+
T

Pulsos aleatoriamente
Pulsos menores
Ambos tipos



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Corona & Gap Discharge Current Pulse
Characteristics
Both positive and
negative corona, as
well as gap
discharge, current
pulses have a fast-
rising front (1 a 50
ns) and a slowly
decaying tail (50 a
200 ns) as shown
cr
cr
0.1 I
0.9 I
cr
I
T
r Time
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
d
T
Corona Current Pulse Characteristics
Type of Pulse Amplitude
(mA)
Rise-time
(ns)
Duration
(ns)
Repetition
Rate
(pulses/s)
Positive Corona
Negative Corona
Gap Discharge
10 – 50
1 – 10
500 - 2000
50
10
1
250
100
5
10
3
– 5.10
3
10
4
- 10
5
10
2
– 5.10
3



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Corona Current Pulse Characteristics
 Frequency Spectra of
Corona and Gap Discharge
Pulses
0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0 1000.0
50
110
100
90
80
70
60
Frequency, MHz.
F

(




)




,

d
B
Positive
Gap
Negative
e




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RI Characteristics of AC Lines
 RI from transmission lines is generally defined in terms of three
characteristics:
1. Frequency Spectrum
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0.2 0.3 0.5 1 2 3 5 10 20 30 0.1
Frequency, MHz
R
I
,


d
B

(

µ

V
/

m

)

Q
P




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RI Characteristics of AC Lines
2. Lateral Profile (proporcional a 1/D)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 100 - -
- -
R
I
,


d
B

(

µ

V
/

m

)


Q
P
Distance, m




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RI Characteristics of AC Lines
3. Statistical Distribution
40 60 20 25 30 35 45 50 55 65
0.5
1.0
2.0
5.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
95.0
98.0
99.0
99.8
99.9
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T
i
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A
b
o
v
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A
b
s
c
i
s
s
a
RI, dB ( µ V /m ) QP




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RI Characteristics of DC Lines
Lateral Profile
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 100 - -
- -
R
I
,


d
B

(

µ

V
/

m

)


Q
P
Distance, m

El positivo contribuye
mucho más a la
radiointerferencia.
Producida por las
descargas tipo streamer.



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RI Characteristics of DC Lines
Statistical Distribution
40 60 20 25 30 35 45 50 55 65
0.5
1.0
2.0
5.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
95.0
98.0
99.0
99.8
99.9
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a
RI, dB ( µ V /m ) QP

Audible Noise Generation and
Propagation
Generated Corona Acoustic
Pulse





 AN Propagation

- 2
- 1
0
1
2
40 0 10 20 30 50 60 70 80
Time, µs.
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,


P
a
.

r
P
O
A
2
x
x
R
1
 - 




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AN Characteristics of AC Lines
 Audible noise from AC lines is described, similar to RI, in terms of
frequency spectrum (figure below), lateral profile and statistical
distribution
63 31 125 250 500 1000 2000 8000
16000 4000
30
40
50
60
S
o
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n
d

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r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
e
v
e
l
,

d
B

a
b
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v
e

2
0

µ

P
A







Frequency, Hz




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Corona-generated Hum Noise
 Oscillatory movement of the ionic space charge creates hum noise at
twice power frequency; Figure shows lateral profile of hum noise
70
60
50
40
0 10 20 30
40 50
Lateral Distance From Center Phase, m.
S
o
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d

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s
s
u
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e

L
e
v
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,

d
B

a
b
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2
0

µ

P
A











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AN Characteristics of DC Lines
 Lateral profile & Statistical distribution are similar to those for RI;
Frequency spectrum is given below
63 31 125 250 500 1000 2000 8000
16000 4000
30
40
50
60
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s
u
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,

d
B

a
b
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2
0

µ

P
A







Frequency, Hz

DC Electric Field & Space Charge
Profiles
E





(
k
V

/

m
)
20
30
10
40
60
70
80
90
100
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50
0
5
10
15
20
25
Computed Electric Field
j



(
n
A

/
m


)
- +
Distance from Centre of Line, m
Negative
Pole
Positive Pole
Measured Electric
Field
Computed
Current Density
Measured
Current Density
g
50
g
2



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Corona Effects Design Criteria
 Corona Loss
- Economic Choice of Conductor Bundle

Conductor Diameter, d
d
m
d
c1
d
c2
T
o
t
a
l

C
o
s
t
B
A

por pérdidas
por radiointerferencia



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Corona Effects Design Criteria (at 1
MHz)
 Radio Interference
USA
RI from power systems is
governed by the FCC Rules

Canada
Design Limits

Nominal
Phase-to-
Phase Voltage
(kV)
Interference
Field Strength
(dB above
1 μV/m)
Below 70
70 – 200
200 – 300
300 – 400
400 – 600
Above 600
43
49
53
56
60
63
Corona Effects Design Criteria
 Audible Noise
USA
 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published guidelines
for AN in general.
 However, each state is responsible to legislate noise regulations and
these regulations may vary widely from state to state.
 The EPA document recommends that the day-night average sound
level, Ldn, be limited to 55 dB(A) outdoors and 45 dB(A) indoors.

DC Fields & Ions Design Criteria
 Design criteria for electric fields and ion currents under DC lines
are established on the basis of human perception studies
 Based on such studies, the following design limits have been
proposed:
E = 25 kV/m (en ca 10 kV/m)
j = 100 nA/m
2
(corriente iónica)
Corona Tutorial
Dave Phillips
Submarine Operating Authority Engineering
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center
San Diego, California
IEEE Joint Technical Committee Meeting 2007
Orlando, Florida
7 January – 10 January
What Is Corona?
What Is Corona?
What Is Corona?
What Is Corona?
Corona is a luminous
discharge due to ionization of
the air surrounding an
electrode, caused by a
voltage gradient exceeding a
certain critical value.
Example of Conductor Corona
What’s The Fuss?
Corona from conductors and
hardware may cause audible noise
and radio noise



What’s The Fuss?
Corona from conductors and
hardware may cause audible noise
and radio noise
Audible noise from conductors may
violate noise standards



Que es este alboroto?
Corona from conductors and
hardware may cause audible noise
and radio noise
Audible noise from conductors may
violate noise standards
Radio noise from conductors may
interfere with communications or
navigation




What’s The Fuss?
Corona from conductors and hardware
may cause audible noise and radio noise
Audible noise from conductors may
violate noise standards
Radio noise from conductors may
interfere with communications or
navigation
Corona loss may be significant when
compared with resistive loss of
conductors



What’s The Fuss?
 Corona from conductors and hardware may
cause audible noise and radio noise
 Audible noise from conductors may violate noise
standards
 Radio noise from conductors may interfere with
communications or navigation
 Corona loss may be significant when compared
with resistive loss of conductors
 Corona can cause possible damage to polymeric
insulators



Corona Discharge Currents are Impulsive
I
c
(t)
t
0.01 – 0.1 μsec
Physical Parameters of Corona
 Corona is caused by the ionization of the media (air)
surrounding the electrode (conductor)
Physical Parameters of Corona
 Corona is caused by the ionization of the media (air)
surrounding the electrode (conductor)
 Corona onset is a function of voltage
Physical Parameters of Corona
 Corona is caused by the ionization of the media (air)
surrounding the electrode (conductor)
 Corona onset is a function of voltage
 Corona onset is a function of relative air density
Physical Parameters of Corona
 Corona is caused by the ionization of the media (air)
surrounding the electrode (conductor)
 Corona onset is a function of voltage
 Corona onset is a function of relative air density
 Corona onset is a function of relative humidity
Corona and the Electric Field
Corona is NOT solely a function of the Electric Field
Corona and the Electric Field
Corona is NOT solely a function of the Electric Field
Corona is a function of the electric field on the surface of the
electrode (conductor)

Corona and the Electric Field
Corona is NOT solely a function of the Electric Field
Corona is a function of the electric field on the surface of the
electrode (conductor)
Corona is also a function of the radius of curvature of the
electrode (conductor)
Corona and the Electric Field
Corona is NOT solely a function of the Electric Field
Corona is a function of the electric field on the surface of the
electrode (conductor)
Corona is also a function of the radius of curvature of the
electrode (conductor)
Corona is also a function of the rate of decay of the electric
field away from the electrode (conductor)
Corona and the Electric Field
For the preceding reasons, selecting the conductor with the
smallest electric field at its surface is not correct.

One utility found out (the hard way) that simply choosing
large diameter conductors did not work well because the
electric field decayed slowly away from the surface
Corona and the Relative Air
Density
Corona and the Relative Air
Density
 Corona has an inverse relationship with air density
Corona and the Relative Air
Density
 Corona has an inverse relationship with air density
 Standard line designs that perform well at sea level, may
have significant corona issues if used on lines that are
installed over mountainous areas
Corona and the Humidity
Corona and the Humidity
 Corona has an inverse relationship with humidity at power
frequencies

Corona and the Humidity
 Corona has an inverse relationship with humidity at power
frequencies
 Fair weather corona is more prevalent in low humidity
environments
Corona Is Dependent
Surface Condition Of The
Conductors
Corona Is Dependent
Surface Condition Of The
Conductors
 Corona is enhanced by irregularities on the conductor
surface

Corona Is Dependent
Surface Condition Of The
Conductors
 Corona is enhanced by irregularities on the conductor
surface
 Irregularities include: dust, insects, burrs and scratches
and water drops present on new conductors
Corona Is Dependent
Surface Condition Of The
Conductors
 Corona is enhanced by irregularities on the conductor
surface
 Irregularities include: dust, insects, burrs and scratches
and water drops present on new conductors
 Corona will generally be greater on new conductors and
will decrease to a steady-state value over a period of
approximately one year in-service
Corona Is Dependent
Surface Condition Of The
Conductors
Corona is enhanced by irregularities on the
conductor surface
Irregularities include: dust, insects, burrs and
scratches and water drops present on new
conductors
Corona will generally be greater on new
conductors and will decrease to a steady-
state value over a period of approximately
one year in-service
Corona is significantly increased in foul
weather.
Corona Is Dependent On
Local Electrode Geometry
Corona Is Dependent On
Local Electrode Geometry
Non-Critical Surfaces
Non-Critical Surface
Critical Surfaces
Number of Elements =210
Critical Section
Corona Is Dependent On
Local Electrode Geometry
Corona Is Dependent On
Local Electrode Geometry
r
S
Ground Plane V = 0
Sphere V = V
0
Corona Is Dependent On
Local Electrode Geometry
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
Actual Electric Field vs. Distance
Distance (cm)
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c

F
i
e
l
d

(
V
/
c
m
)
1 cm
2 cm
3 cm
4 cm
5 cm
6 cm
7 cm
8 cm
9 cm
Why is it a special problem for
voltage upgrades?
If the voltage of a transmission line is increased
without changing the line design, the electric field
at the surface of the line conductors (and hardware)
will increase. This increase will cause additional
corona

The same can be said for compact transmission
lines.
Practical Consequences
1. Larger conductors better – to a point
2. Use conductor bundles to reduce corona
3. Corona phenomena much worse in foul weather, high altitude
4. Compact lines more susceptible
5. New conductors can lead to poor corona performance for a while
Cautions Regarding Radio Noise
Cautions Regarding Radio Noise
 Radio noise from corona should not be confused with radio
noise generated by spark discharge
Cautions Regarding Radio Noise
 Radio noise from corona should not be confused with radio
noise generated by spark discharge
 High frequency complaints are almost always due to
sparks
Cautions Regarding Radio Noise
 Radio noise from corona should not be confused with radio
noise generated by spark discharge
 High frequency complaints are almost always due to
sparks
 Causes of spark discharges can be located and repaired
Cautions Regarding Radio Noise
 Radio noise from corona should not be confused with radio
noise generated by spark discharge
 High frequency complaints are almost always due to
sparks
 Causes of spark discharges can be located and repaired
 Corona is a DESIGN ISSUE
Cautions Regarding Radio Noise
 Radio noise caused by corona cannot be reduced by
changing the line configuration near where the noise
problem is occuring. The source of the problem can be
several miles away
Audible Noise
Can get “broadband noise” and “hum”

Load can affect audible noise

For measurement see:

ANSI/IEEE Standard 656-1992 – “IEEE Standard
For Measurement of Audible Noise from Overhead
Transmission Lines
Audible Noise
 May be present as “120 Hz Hum” or broadband noise
 Can be affected by load
Audible Noise
Audible Noise
 May be present as “120 Hz Hum” or broadband noise
Audible Noise
 May be present as “120 Hz Hum” or broadband noise
 Can be affected by load
Audible Noise in Context
50
55
60
65
Audible
Noise dBA
30 meters
from
centerline
Numerous
complaints
Moderate
complaints
No
complaints
Source: BPA study
Common design limit – 53 dBA
EPA Regulations
Effect Level Area
Outdoor
activity
Indoor
activity
L
dn
< 55 dBA
Residential areas
and farms where
.. quiet is a basis
for use
L
eq(24)
< 55 dBA
Areas where
people spend
limited time
L
dn
< 45 dBA
L
eq(24)
< 45 dBA
Residential
Other
L
dn
(has a -10 dB adder nightime) L
eq(24)
(24 hour average)
x
y
Tradeoff: Magnetic Field vs. Audible Noise
Effect of Changing Conductor Phasing
A
B
C
A or C
B
C or A
White – ABC – ABC Super Bundle
Red – ABC – CBA Low Reactance
500 kV Double Circuit Line
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Distance from Center Line
M
a
g
n
e
t
i
c

F
i
e
l
d

(
m
G
)
ABC – ABC Super Bundle
ABC – CBA Low Reactance
Magnetic Field is Reduced
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Distance from Center Line (m)
A
u
d
i
b
l
e

N
o
i
s
e

(
d
B
A
)
ABC – CBA (Low Reactance)
ABC – ABC (Super Bundle)
Audible Noise is Increased
Corona Loss
What is it?

Whenever corona occurs on a transmission line, there is a corresponding loss of
energy called “corona loss.” This loss is one of the reasons why the transmission of
electric energy between two points is not perfect.


When can it be a problem?

Generally, corona loss is significantly less than resistive loss. However, at higher
voltages, high altitudes and during foul weather, corona loss can actually exceed
resistive loss.
A Word On Corona Losses
A Word On Corona Losses
 Whenever corona occurs on a transmission line, there is a
corresponding loss of energy called “corona loss.” This
loss is one of the reasons why the transmission of electric
energy between two points is not perfect


A Word On Corona Losses
Whenever corona occurs on a transmission
line, there is a corresponding loss of energy
called “corona loss.” This loss is one of the
reasons why the transmission of electric
energy between two points is not perfect
Generally, corona loss is significantly less
than resistive loss. However, at higher
voltages, high altitudes and during foul
weather, corona loss can actually exceed
resistive loss


Example Losses (sea level)
Line
Voltage (kV)
Bundle
n x 2a
Load
MVA
I
2
R Loss
kW/km
Corona Loss (kW/km)
Average Maximum
362
550
800
2 x 3.16
3 x 3.3
4 x 3.3
400
900
2000
41
52
93
2
4
8
26
78
208
Corona On Hardware

Transmission line hardware is usually tested in the
laboratory prior to being selected to determine
whether is corona free. This test is often done on a
single phase system in order to conserve laboratory
space.

It has been found that the traditional method of
energizing the system to 110% of the rated line to
ground voltage is not sufficient, especially for lines
of more compact design. Apparently, the hardware
is exposed to higher gradients in the field than those
to which the hardware was tested.
Corona On Hardware
Corona On Hardware
 Transmission line hardware is usually tested in the
laboratory prior to being selected to determine whether is
corona free. This test is often done on a single phase
system in order to conserve laboratory space
Corona On Hardware
Transmission line hardware is usually tested
in the laboratory prior to being selected to
determine whether is corona free. This test is
often done on a single phase system in order
to conserve laboratory space
It has been found that the traditional method
of energizing the system to 110% of the rated
line to ground voltage is not sufficient,
especially for lines of more compact design.
Apparently, the hardware is exposed to higher
gradients in the field than those to which the
hardware was tested
DAÑOS EN LINEAS DE SUB
TRANSMISION
DAÑOS EN SUBESTACIONES
DAÑOS EN LINEAS DE TRANSMISION
DAÑOS EN BOBINADOS DE MOTORES
DEFECTOS TIPICOS
DEFECTOS CAUSADOS POR EL
EFECTO CORONA



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FIN DE LA EXPOSICION

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