WORK HARDER ON YOURSELF THAN YOU DO ON YOUR JOB

Jim Rohn

Monorail Project

Presentation on Prestressed Concrete Structures

Sateesh babu

What Is Reinforced Concrete
Reinforced concrete combines concrete and steel bars by simply putting them together and letting them act together as they may wish in passive manner.

 Inducing the stresses to the structure before live load comes.What Is Prestressed Concrete  Prestressed concrete is a method for overcoming concrete's natural weakness in tension. .  Concrete in which there have been introduced internal stresses of such magnitude And distribution that the stresses resulting from given external loadings are counteracted to a desired degree.

Fig1:wooden barrels wounded with steel bands .History: The application of pre-stressing in concrete structures is not the only instance. There were some earlier attempts made. Two of the instances are provided below 1) Force-fitting of metal bands on wooden barrels: The metal bands around the barrel induce a state of initial hoop compression to counteract the hoop tension caused by filling of liquid in the barrels.

This is analogous to modern day segmental constructions. a patent was granted for tightening steel tie rods in concrete blocks. ● Early attempts were not very successful due to low strength of steel at that time. the prestress losses due to creep and shrinkage of concrete quickly reduce the effectiveness of prestressing. In 1886.2) Pre-tensioning of spokes in a bicycle wheel The pre-tension is applied in the spoke to such an extent that there will always be a residual tension in the spoke Fig: spokes of a bicycle wheel in pretension ● The concept of prestressed concrete is also not new. Since we cannot prestress at high stress level. .

BACK FORWARD . which has grown from zero in 1950 to more than 90 percent today.CASE STUDIES Bridges Built % Built 60 50 40 30 P/C 20 10 0 50 R/C T 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 00 Year Built Source: National Bridge Inventory Data Owners and designers have long recognized the low initial cost. This is reflected in the increasing market share of prestressed concrete. low maintenance needs and long life expectancy of prestressed concrete bridges.

. Therefore the ‘beam’ of books cannot even carry its self weight.Basic Principle of Prestressing Basic Example The classic everyday example of prestressing is this: a row of books can be lifted by squeezing the ends together: The structural explanation is that the row of books has zero tensile capacity. Now they can only separate if the tensile stress induced by the self weight of the books is greater than the compressive prestress introduced. To overcome this we provide an external initial stress (the prestress) which compresses the books together.

though strong in compression was quite weak in tension and prestressing the steel against concrete would put concrete is under compressive stress which could be utilized to counterbalance any tensile stress produced by dead & live loads.Concept These applications are based on the conception that concrete. .

000=0. If the modulus of elasticity of steel is approximately 200x10E3 MPa. the strain of the bar is Strain= 124/200. .Why we need high strength steel ? Consider an ordinary structural steel bar prestressed to a stress of 124MPa. the initial unit lengthening of steel could be entirely lost.00062 Since eventual shrinkage and creep often induce this strain.

000 =0. with an ultimate strength as high as 1725MPa and a yield point over 1240MPa. started using high strength steel wires for prestressing. create a unit strain of (Fig.000MPa.In 1928.005 .000/200.1-4) δ= 1. Such wires. are prestressed to about 1.

0050. which is equivalent to a stress of 0.0042 would still be left.Assuming a total loss of 0. Though it did not actually come to fore until 1945. a net strain of 0.0008 due to shrinkage and creep. .000=840MPa.0008=0.0042x200.

in Stage 2 the concrete is cast around the stressed wires/strands.1. and inStage 3 the prestressed in transferred from the external anchorages to the concrete.5 Methods of Prestressing There are two methods of prestressing:  Pre-tensioning: Apply prestress to steel strands before casting concrete.  Post-tensioning: Apply prestress to steel tendons after casting concrete. In Stage 1 the wires or strands arestressed.  Pre-tensioning This is the most common form for precast sections. once it has sufficient strength: .

In pre-tensioned members. Therefore. the strand is directly bonded to the concrete cast around it. the strandforce is transferred to the concrete through the bond: .

. Communications poles. 16 m span forcar parks).  • Pre-tensioned precast PSC piles.     .for very long spans (e.  • Pre-tensioned precast portal frame units. Pre-tensioned precast “hollowcore” slabs.g.  • Pre-tensioned precast inverted T beam for shortspan bridges. Pre-tensioned Precast Double T units .Applications of pre-tensioning Railway Sleepers.

Post-tensioned In this method. The strands or tendons are fed through the ducts (Stage 1) then tensioned(Stage 2) and then anchored to the concrete (Stage 3): . the concrete has already set but has ducts cast into it.

and must resist bursting forces as a result.The anchorages to post-tensioned members must distribute a large load to the concrete. A lot of ordinary reinforcement is often necessary . .

Jacking and anchoring with wedges .

 In-situ balanced cantilever construction . .  And many more.  Barges.precast segments post-tensioned together on site.  This is “glued segmental” construction.posttensioned PSC.  PSC tank .  Precast segments are joined by post-tensioning.Applications of post-tensioning  Post-tensioned ribbed slab. Tendons around  circumference of tank.

.  A larger elastic modulus is needed to reduce the shortening of the member.1.  A mix that reduces creep of the concrete to minimize losses of prestress.4 Materials Concrete The main factors for concrete used in PSC are:  Ordinary portland cement-based concrete is used but strength usually greaterthan 50 N/mm2.  A high early strength is required to enable quicker application of prestress.

You can see the importance creep has in PSC from this graph: .

 The different forms the steel may take are:  Wires: individually drawn wires of 7 mm diameter.  Strands: a collection of wires (usually 7) wound together and thus having a diameter that is different to its area.  Tendon: A collection of strands encased in a duct – only used in posttensioning.  Bar: a specially formed bar of high strength steel of greater than 20 mm diameter. .Steel  The steel used for prestressing has a nominal yield strength of between 1550 to 1800N/mm2.

.

In both methods: • The member shortens due to the force and this relieves some of the prestress. the prestress force gradually reduces over time to an equilibrium level. that is. The sources of these losses depend on the method by which prestressing is applied. In post-tensioning. For now. continues to strain over time.Losses in prestressed concrete From the time the prestress is applied. the steel stress reduces over time. losses will just be considered as a percentage of the initial prestress . there are also losses due to the anchorage (which can ‘draw in’ an amount) and to the friction between the tendons and the duct and also initial imperfections in the duct setting out. • The concrete creeps. • The steel ‘relaxes’. • The concrete shrinks as it further cures. that is.

Note: Pretension has larger loss because prestressing is usually done when concrete is about 1-2 days old whereas Posttensioning is done at much later time when concrete is stronger .

 Prestressing allows reduced beam depths to be achieved for equivalent design strengths.  Lighter elements permit the use of longer spanning members with a high strength to weight characteristic. e.  If the member is subject to overload. . will close up on removal of the overload.  Prestressing enables both entire structural elements and structures to be formed from a number of precast units.g. cracks.Advantages of Prestressing The use of prestressed concrete offers distinct advantages over ordinary reinforced listed as follows: General advantages:  Prestressing minimises the effect of cracks in concrete elements by holding the concrete in compression. which may develop. Segmented and Modular Construction.  Prestressed concrete is resilient and will recover from the effects of a greater degree of overload than any other structural material.

So cost of steel for 1 M3 =150 kg * 45 approx = Rs6750 .  Prestressing permits a more efficient usage of steel and enables the economic use of high tensile steels and high strength concrete. How ? More Steel = High Cost and Less Steel = Low Cost. you may be using a lot of steel but if you go for PT work. you will save a lot on steel which will directly reduce your cost. Cost advantages of Prestressing  Prestressed concrete can provide significant cost advantages over structural steel sections or ordinary reinforced concrete. For example: In RC work 1 M3 = 150 kg steel and steel per kg is Rs45.  If you go for RC work. The ability to control deflections in prestressed beams and slabs permits longer spans to be achieved.

6000 = Rs750 approx 29 .COST SAVING BUDGET IF YOU GO TO PT WORK INSTEAD OF RC WORK But in PT work 1 M3 = 50kg steel .so cost of steel for 1M3 = 50kg *45appro = Rs2250 So the difference of cost between both is 6750-2250 =Rs4500 which you will be saving. The PT work cost’s around Rs3750 approx Now for PT work the amount you will spend for 1 M3 will be 3750 + 2250 =Rs6000 And after paying for PT work you will still save 6750.

 There is additional cost in auxiliary equipments. . it is not as common as reinforced concrete. Hence. some aspects need to be carefully addressed.Limitations of Prestressing Although prestressing has advantages.  The use of high strength materials is costly.  Prestressing needs skilled technology.  There is need for quality control and inspection.

 Durability Since the entire section remains in compression.  Increased Spans The smaller section size reduces self weight. . Hence a given section can span further with prestressed concrete than it can with ordinary reinforced concrete.The main advantages of prestressed concrete(PSC)are:  Smaller Section Sizes Since PSC uses the whole concrete section. no cracking of the concrete can occur and hence there is little penetration of the cover. with far greater durability. especially bridges and also means that concrete tanks can be made as watertight as steel tanks. the second moment of area is bigger andso the section is stiffer:  Smaller Deflections The larger second moment of area greatly reduces deflections for a given section size. This greatly improves thelong-term durability of structures.

The hydraulic jack used for the tensioning of tendons.Source of Prestressing Force Hydraulic Prestressing This is the simplest type of prestressing. This type of prestressing is adopted for mass scale production. . the devices includes weights with or without lever transmission. comprises of calibrated pressure gauges which directly indicate the magnitude of force developed during the tensioning. Mechanical Prestressing In this type of prestressing. geared transmission in conjunction with pulley blocks. screw jacks with or without gear drives and wire-winding machines. producing large prestressing forces.

This type of prestressing is also known as thermo-electric prestressing. the steel wires are electrically heated and anchored before placing concrete in the moulds.Electrical Prestressing  In this type of prestressing. Chemical prestressing  In This type of prestressing. . the chemical reaction taken place in expansive cements can stress the embedded steel which in turn compress the concrete. This often termed as self stressed.

Applications of prestressed concrete: Bridges Slabs in buildings Water Tank Concrete Pile Thin Shell Structures Offshore Platform Nuclear Power Plant Repair and Rehabilitations .

.

.

Sheeting pipe .

Anchor cones .

Wedges .

Anchorage block .

Strand coil .

Duct profiling .

.

.

Hydraulic jacks .

C/S after stressing .

Grout cap and vent .