HA 204

:

Public Policy Analysis
Dr. ZHANG Zhibin

Assistant Professor of Public Administration, NTU
With permission ; shared by Aristeo c. Salapa USeP-CGBE PA 241 Davao City,Philippines

Lecture 3: Policy Process Lecture outline The Policy Process: How Policies Are Made The Policy Process Problem Identification and Agenda Setting Formulating Policy Policy Legitimation Policy Implementation Policy Evaluation Summary .

policy processes occurs simultaneously .How Policies Are Made • The Study of Policy Process – Process – Activities – Participants • In reality.

Policymaking Process Process Activity Participants Problem Identification Agenda Setting Policy Formulation Developing policy proposals to resolve issues and ameliorate problems Policy Legitimation Policy Implementation Policy Evaluation Publicizing social problems Expressing demands for government action Deciding what issues will be decided. Congress Candidates for elective Office Mass media Thank tanks President and executive office Congressional committees Interest groups Interest groups President Congress Courts President and White House staff Executive departments and agencies Executive departments and agencies Congressional Oversight committees Mass media Think tanks . Including President. What problems will be addressed by government Selecting a proposal Developing political support for it Enacting it into law Deciding on its constitutionality Organizing departments and agencies Providing payments or services Levying taxes Reporting outputs Of government programs Evaluating impacts of policies on target and non-target groups Proposing changes and “reforms” Mass media Interest groups Citizen initiatives Public opinion Elites.

Policy Agendas • What are agendas? – The list of subjects or problems to which governmental and nongovernmental actor are paying serious attention at any given point of time – Two types of agenda • Systemic agenda: they are generally recognized to deserve public attention and are matters within the government’s legitimate jurisdiction – education • Institutional agenda: they are explicitly up for active and serious consideration by the authoritative decision makers – legal bill • Institutional agendas are less abstract and narrower in scope then systemic agendas • The importance of problem definition – Not all social problems become public policy issues • The political tactics for agenda setting .

Bottom Up • The “bottom up” model of agenda setting – Public opinion and agenda setting • A philosophical controversy: should public opinion determine public policy? – Opinion-policy linkage • Mass opinion shapes public policy or public policy shapes mass opinion? – Policy effects • Public policy shapes public opinion more often – Media effects • New media are not equal to public opinions – Opinion polls • Public opinions are not equal to those produced by pollsters – Communicating with policymakers • Communication between public opinion and policymakers has a elite bias – National referenda .Agenda Setting .

Agenda Setting – Top Down • The “top-down” model of agenda setting – Popular perceptions of policymaking • Policy is made from the top down – Elite agenda setting • The initial impetus of policymaking is derived from the elites – Political entrepreneurship • Political candidates put forward policy issues to win election – The President and White House Staff • State of the Union message • Budget of the United States Government • The President’s motivations to initiate policy agenda – Reelection or the seek of historical “greatness” – Congress and legislative staff – Interest group .

Non-decisions • The Non-decision making – To keep issues out of the political arena • Why nondecision making happens – The elites • To suppress the issue not be in their interest – The administrative officials • To drop the issue to cater the elite preference – The political system • To obstruct certain issues .

organizations. and events • Media bias – The impact of liberalism – The need to attract attention • Media effects – Identifying issues and setting agenda – Influencing attitudes and values – Changing behaviors .Agenda Setting and Mass Media • Media power – Media are both players and referees in the political games – Television networks – News press • News-making – Media determine the amount of attention to certain people.

Formulating Policy • Policy formulation – Development of policy alternatives – Creation of relevant and supportable courses of action for dealing with problems – It does not always result in the adoption of policy • The policy formulators – Think tanks • • • • • Brookings Institution: www.brookings.cfr.heritage.org Others .org The Heritage Foundation: www.edu The American Enterprise Institute: www.org The Council on Foreign Relations: www.aei.

Interest groups and policymaking • The influence of interest groups on policymaking – – – – – Direct lobbying Campaign contributions Interpersonal contacts Litigation to force policy changes Grassroots mobilization • Lobbying • PACs • Difficulty in Assessing Interest Group Influence – – – – Coincidence with the position of interest groups The influence of interest group is behind the scenes Limited in specific legislation rather than overall policy decision Constrained by other actors in policy-making .

Policy legitimation • Formal lawmaking process • Party influence – Party loyalty – Party ideology – The difference between Democrats and Republicans in the US Congress • Presidential influence – It depends on the control of Congress – The power of veto • Constituency influence • Contributor influence .

Policy Implementation: The Bureaucracy • • • • • Implementation and policymaking Regulation and policymaking Adjudication and policymaking Bureaucratic discretion and policymaking Policy bias of bureaucrats .

Policy evaluation • Policy evaluation actors • Types of policy evaluation – Administrative evaluation: managerial performance and budgeting system – Judicial evaluation: judicial review and administrative discretion – Political evaluation: elections. inquiries. and legislative oversight • Approaches of policy evaluation – Impressionistic – Systematic .

Conclusion • • • • • • • • • The effect of public opinion Agenda setting process The role of media Policy formulation process The proximate policymakers Congress and its members Partisanship Presidents Policy Implementation .